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Postgraduate Thesis: MBE growth of AlInN and Bi2Se3 thin films and hetero-structures
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TitleMBE growth of AlInN and Bi2Se3 thin films and hetero-structures
 
AuthorsWang, Ziyan
王子砚
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
Abstract Molecular Beam Epitaxy is an advanced method for the synthesis of single-crystal thin-film structures. However, the growth behavior varies case by case due to the complicated kinetic process. In this thesis, the epitaxial growth processes of AlxIn1-xN alloy and Bi2Se3 thin-films are studied. Heteroepitaxial growth of AlxIn1-xN alloy on GaN(0001) substrate is carried out in the Nitrogen-rich flux conditions. A series of transient growth stages are identified from the initiation of the deposition. A significant effect of source beam-flux on the incorporation rate of Indium atoms is observed and measured. A correlation between the incorporation rate and the growth conditions (flux ratio and growth temperature) is revealed by the dependence of the growth-rate of the film on beam fluxes. A mathematic model is then suggested to explain the effect, through which the measured results indicating a surface diffusing and trapping process is indicated. Unexpected behavior of the lattice-parameter evolution of the growth front during deposition is also observed, indicating a complex strain-relaxation process of the epilayers. For three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator of Bi2Se3, growths are attempted on various substrate surfaces, including clean Si(111)-(7x7), Hydrogen terminated Si(111), Bismuth induced Si(111) reconstructed surfaces, GaN(0001), and some selenide “psudo-substrates”. The specific formation process of this quintuple-layered material in MBE is investigated, from which the Van der Waals epitaxy growth characteristics inherent to deposition of Bi2Se3 is determined, and the mechanism of the “two-step growth” technique for this material is further clarified. Among the various substrates, those that are inert to chemical reaction with Bi/Se are important for the growth. The epilayers’ lattice-misfit with the substrate is also a crucial factor to the structural quality of the Bi2Se3 epifilms, such as the defects density and the single-crystalline domain size. The effect of a vicinal substrate on suppressing the twin-defects in film is also addressed. Using a suitable substrate and adapting an optimal condition, ultra-thin films of Bi2Se3 with a superior structural quality have been achieved. Multilayered Bi2Se3 structures with ZnSe and In2Se3 spacers are attempted. Finally the high-quality superlattices of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are successfully synthesized. The hetero-interfaces in the superlattice structure of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are sharp, and the individual layers are uniform with thicknesses being strictly controlled. The behaviors of strain evolution during the hetero-growth process are finally investigated. An exponential relaxation of misfit strain is observed. And the correlation between the residual strain and the starting surface in the initial growth stage is also identified.
 
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
 
SubjectAluminum alloys.
Indium alloys.
Bismuth compounds.
Selenium compounds.
Thin films.
Heterostructures.
Molecular beam epitaxy.
 
Dept/ProgramPhysics
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorWang, Ziyan
 
dc.contributor.author王子砚
 
dc.date.hkucongregation2012
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstract Molecular Beam Epitaxy is an advanced method for the synthesis of single-crystal thin-film structures. However, the growth behavior varies case by case due to the complicated kinetic process. In this thesis, the epitaxial growth processes of AlxIn1-xN alloy and Bi2Se3 thin-films are studied. Heteroepitaxial growth of AlxIn1-xN alloy on GaN(0001) substrate is carried out in the Nitrogen-rich flux conditions. A series of transient growth stages are identified from the initiation of the deposition. A significant effect of source beam-flux on the incorporation rate of Indium atoms is observed and measured. A correlation between the incorporation rate and the growth conditions (flux ratio and growth temperature) is revealed by the dependence of the growth-rate of the film on beam fluxes. A mathematic model is then suggested to explain the effect, through which the measured results indicating a surface diffusing and trapping process is indicated. Unexpected behavior of the lattice-parameter evolution of the growth front during deposition is also observed, indicating a complex strain-relaxation process of the epilayers. For three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator of Bi2Se3, growths are attempted on various substrate surfaces, including clean Si(111)-(7x7), Hydrogen terminated Si(111), Bismuth induced Si(111) reconstructed surfaces, GaN(0001), and some selenide “psudo-substrates”. The specific formation process of this quintuple-layered material in MBE is investigated, from which the Van der Waals epitaxy growth characteristics inherent to deposition of Bi2Se3 is determined, and the mechanism of the “two-step growth” technique for this material is further clarified. Among the various substrates, those that are inert to chemical reaction with Bi/Se are important for the growth. The epilayers’ lattice-misfit with the substrate is also a crucial factor to the structural quality of the Bi2Se3 epifilms, such as the defects density and the single-crystalline domain size. The effect of a vicinal substrate on suppressing the twin-defects in film is also addressed. Using a suitable substrate and adapting an optimal condition, ultra-thin films of Bi2Se3 with a superior structural quality have been achieved. Multilayered Bi2Se3 structures with ZnSe and In2Se3 spacers are attempted. Finally the high-quality superlattices of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are successfully synthesized. The hetero-interfaces in the superlattice structure of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are sharp, and the individual layers are uniform with thicknesses being strictly controlled. The behaviors of strain evolution during the hetero-growth process are finally investigated. An exponential relaxation of misfit strain is observed. And the correlation between the residual strain and the starting surface in the initial growth stage is also identified.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysics
 
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral
 
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy
 
dc.identifier.hkulb4716348
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)
 
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47163483
 
dc.subject.lcshAluminum alloys.
 
dc.subject.lcshIndium alloys.
 
dc.subject.lcshBismuth compounds.
 
dc.subject.lcshSelenium compounds.
 
dc.subject.lcshThin films.
 
dc.subject.lcshHeterostructures.
 
dc.subject.lcshMolecular beam epitaxy.
 
dc.titleMBE growth of AlInN and Bi2Se3 thin films and hetero-structures
 
dc.typePG_Thesis
 
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 Molecular Beam Epitaxy is an advanced method for the synthesis of single-crystal thin-film structures. However, the growth behavior varies case by case due to the complicated kinetic process. In this thesis, the epitaxial growth processes of AlxIn1-xN alloy and Bi2Se3 thin-films are studied.



 Heteroepitaxial growth of AlxIn1-xN alloy on GaN(0001) substrate is carried out in the Nitrogen-rich flux conditions. A series of transient growth stages are identified from the initiation of the deposition. A significant effect of source beam-flux on the incorporation rate of Indium atoms is observed and measured. A correlation between the incorporation rate and the growth conditions (flux ratio and growth temperature) is revealed by the dependence of the growth-rate of the film on beam fluxes. A mathematic model is then suggested to explain the effect, through which the measured results indicating a surface diffusing and trapping process is indicated. Unexpected behavior of the lattice-parameter evolution of the growth front during deposition is also observed, indicating a complex strain-relaxation process of the epilayers.



 For three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator of Bi2Se3, growths are attempted on various substrate surfaces, including clean Si(111)-(7x7), Hydrogen terminated Si(111), Bismuth induced Si(111) reconstructed surfaces, GaN(0001), and some selenide &#8220;psudo-substrates&#8221;. The specific formation process of this quintuple-layered material in MBE is investigated, from which the Van der Waals epitaxy growth characteristics inherent to deposition of Bi2Se3 is determined, and the mechanism of the &#8220;two-step growth&#8221; technique for this material is further clarified. Among the various substrates, those that are inert to chemical reaction with Bi/Se are important for the growth. The epilayers&#8217; lattice-misfit with the substrate is also a crucial factor to the structural quality of the Bi2Se3 epifilms, such as the defects density and the single-crystalline domain size. The effect of a vicinal substrate on suppressing the twin-defects in film is also addressed. Using a suitable substrate and adapting an optimal condition, ultra-thin films of Bi2Se3 with a superior structural quality have been achieved. Multilayered Bi2Se3 structures with ZnSe and In2Se3 spacers are attempted. Finally the high-quality superlattices of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are successfully synthesized. The hetero-interfaces in the superlattice structure of Bi2Se3/In2Se3 are sharp, and the individual layers are uniform with thicknesses being strictly controlled. 



 The behaviors of strain evolution during the hetero-growth process are finally investigated. An exponential relaxation of misfit strain is observed. And the correlation between the residual strain and the starting surface in the initial growth stage is also identified.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)</relation.ispartof>
<rights>The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.</rights>
<rights>Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License</rights>
<source.uri>http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47163483</source.uri>
<subject.lcsh>Aluminum alloys.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Indium alloys.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Bismuth compounds.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Selenium compounds.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Thin films.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Heterostructures.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Molecular beam epitaxy.</subject.lcsh>
<title>MBE growth of AlInN and Bi2Se3 thin films and hetero-structures</title>
<type>PG_Thesis</type>
<identifier.hkul>b4716348</identifier.hkul>
<description.thesisname>Doctor of Philosophy</description.thesisname>
<description.thesislevel>doctoral</description.thesislevel>
<description.thesisdiscipline>Physics</description.thesisdiscipline>
<description.nature>published_or_final_version</description.nature>
<date.hkucongregation>2012</date.hkucongregation>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/174325/1/FullText.pdf</bitstream.url>
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