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postgraduate thesis: Positron beam study of carbon foil and titanium dioxide nanotubes, andproposing a design of a lifetime positron beam based on secondaryelectrons emission from carbon foil

TitlePositron beam study of carbon foil and titanium dioxide nanotubes, andproposing a design of a lifetime positron beam based on secondaryelectrons emission from carbon foil
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Abstract
Secondary electron (SE) emission from thin carbon foils induced by 1-20 keV positrons has been investigated over a range of nominal foil thicknesses from 1.0 to 5.0 μg/cm2. The measurement of SEs was carried out in forward geometry using a microchannel plate as a detector. The SE yield γ has been measured as a function of beam energy and compared with some Monte Carlo simulation results. We also present in this thesis the material parameter Λ=? / (dE / dx) and the emitted SE energy spectra. Forincident positron energy of 5 keV or higher, the distribution is found to be characterizedby the Sickafus form, AEm and m is close to 1. For low energy incident positrons however, another form, Bexp(E / t) , is proposed for describing the SE distribution. The maximum scattering angle for SEs emitted from 5.0 μg/cm2 is found to be around 60°. Measurements of energy loss and energy loss straggling for 1-10 keV positrons passing through thin carbon foils of different thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 μg/cm2 are present in this thesis. The stopping power dE / dx and positron transmission coefficient have also been investigated as a function of incident positron energy and foil thickness. Particularly, our experimental results are compared with those from Monte Carlo simulation and theory with a view to providing a way to determine the real thickness of carbon foil. The ratio of the energy loss straggling to the foil thickness seems to have a linear relation with the beam energy. The transmitted positrons after passing through 5.0 μg/cm2 C-foil have a small scattering angle which is less than 10°. Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays fabricated by anodization of titanium foil and annealed at different temperatures were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The crystallization process and morphological change of the nanotubes have been discussed. It is found that anatase (101) only appeared on the walls of the nanotube. The atomic concentration of fluoride and the ratio of Ti/O decreased when the annealing temperature increased. Vacancy type defects were found to diffuse toward the surface when the samples were annealed at 200°C and 400°C and healing of vacancies occurred at 600°C. In addition, the fluoride may form some complexes with vacancies on the surface hence lowering the value of the S parameter. A new design of the lifetime positron beam based on the SE emission is proposed. The observed experimental results and simulation results make it possible to construct a new type of high resolution (<250ps) lifetime positron beam. In addition, how rastering of the positron beam can be used to accurately locate the position of the C-foil is also shown; a feature that will be of value in setting up a positron lifetime system. Such a lifetime system is expected to be much simpler in construction than existing beam based lifetime spectroscopy systems.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectNanotubes.
Positron beams.
Secondary electron emission.
Dept/ProgramPhysics

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorYang, Bin-
dc.contributor.author杨彬-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.description.abstractSecondary electron (SE) emission from thin carbon foils induced by 1-20 keV positrons has been investigated over a range of nominal foil thicknesses from 1.0 to 5.0 μg/cm2. The measurement of SEs was carried out in forward geometry using a microchannel plate as a detector. The SE yield γ has been measured as a function of beam energy and compared with some Monte Carlo simulation results. We also present in this thesis the material parameter Λ=? / (dE / dx) and the emitted SE energy spectra. Forincident positron energy of 5 keV or higher, the distribution is found to be characterizedby the Sickafus form, AEm and m is close to 1. For low energy incident positrons however, another form, Bexp(E / t) , is proposed for describing the SE distribution. The maximum scattering angle for SEs emitted from 5.0 μg/cm2 is found to be around 60°. Measurements of energy loss and energy loss straggling for 1-10 keV positrons passing through thin carbon foils of different thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 μg/cm2 are present in this thesis. The stopping power dE / dx and positron transmission coefficient have also been investigated as a function of incident positron energy and foil thickness. Particularly, our experimental results are compared with those from Monte Carlo simulation and theory with a view to providing a way to determine the real thickness of carbon foil. The ratio of the energy loss straggling to the foil thickness seems to have a linear relation with the beam energy. The transmitted positrons after passing through 5.0 μg/cm2 C-foil have a small scattering angle which is less than 10°. Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays fabricated by anodization of titanium foil and annealed at different temperatures were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The crystallization process and morphological change of the nanotubes have been discussed. It is found that anatase (101) only appeared on the walls of the nanotube. The atomic concentration of fluoride and the ratio of Ti/O decreased when the annealing temperature increased. Vacancy type defects were found to diffuse toward the surface when the samples were annealed at 200°C and 400°C and healing of vacancies occurred at 600°C. In addition, the fluoride may form some complexes with vacancies on the surface hence lowering the value of the S parameter. A new design of the lifetime positron beam based on the SE emission is proposed. The observed experimental results and simulation results make it possible to construct a new type of high resolution (<250ps) lifetime positron beam. In addition, how rastering of the positron beam can be used to accurately locate the position of the C-foil is also shown; a feature that will be of value in setting up a positron lifetime system. Such a lifetime system is expected to be much simpler in construction than existing beam based lifetime spectroscopy systems.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47160287-
dc.subject.lcshNanotubes.-
dc.subject.lcshPositron beams.-
dc.subject.lcshSecondary electron emission.-
dc.titlePositron beam study of carbon foil and titanium dioxide nanotubes, andproposing a design of a lifetime positron beam based on secondaryelectrons emission from carbon foil-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4716028-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysics-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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