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Postgraduate Thesis: Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble
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TitleSuppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble
 
AuthorsLuo, Yu
罗郁
 
Issue Date2012
 
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
AbstractSpin degrees of freedom have been extensively explored in the context of quantum information processing. Many proposals of quantum computation architectures use spins as carriers of quantum of information. A central problem is to efficiently generate quantum entanglement between spin qubits which proves to be a crucial resource for quantum information tasks. On the other hand, uncontrollable spin degrees of freedom in the environment of spin qubits are the major causes of errors at low temperature, for example, the lattice nuclear spins hyperfine coupled to single electron spin qubit localized in semiconductor nano-structures. An outstanding problem for scalable quantum computation is to suppress the collective fluctuations from such spin baths so that the coherence time of the spin qubit can be improved. With these two motivations, the problems of suppressing collective spin fluctuations and generating entanglement in various spin ensembles are addressed in this thesis. In the first half of the thesis, two approaches are introduced for suppressing the collective fluctuations in the nuclear spin bath so that the quantum coherence time of electron spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots can be improved. The first approach works for a coupled double dot system. A theory for the interaction with the nuclear spins is developed when the two-electron singlet state is in resonance with one of the triplet state in moderate external magnetic field. At this resonance condition, the nuclear-electron flip-flop process caused by the hyperfine interaction can lead to a feedback mechanism, which can be used to suppress the nuclear hyperfine field. The second approach works for a single dot system. It is shown that strong pumping of the nuclear spins in dynamic nuclear polarization processes can saturate the nuclear spin bath towards the collective “dark states”. In such dark states, the transverse nuclear field fluctuation can be substantially suppressed compared to the value at thermal equilibrium. Two physical schemes are proposed to realize the nuclear dark states for suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations. In the second half of the thesis, schemes are presented for generating large scale quantum entanglement in two types of spin qubit systems. For atomic spin qubits in optical lattices, schemes are proposed on how to prepare pure spin coherent state (SCS) with low collective spin by incoherent pumping with collective spin raising and lowering operations. Such SCS realize networks of mutually entangled spins which can be idea resources for the quantum telecloning algorithm. For donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon architecture, proposals are shown on how to deterministic prepare Dicke states which constitute an important class of multipartite entangled states. Our scheme is capable of preparing both symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which form a complete basis set of the spin Hilbert space. The required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane’s quantum computer. The preparation is robust because each desired Dicke state is the steady state under designed pumping process. The schemes presented here also make possible the construction of decoherence free subspaces where quantum information is protected from collective noises.
 
AdvisorsYao, W
 
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
 
SubjectQuantum theory - Data processing.
 
Dept/ProgramPhysics
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.advisorYao, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLuo, Yu
 
dc.contributor.author罗郁
 
dc.date.hkucongregation2012
 
dc.date.issued2012
 
dc.description.abstractSpin degrees of freedom have been extensively explored in the context of quantum information processing. Many proposals of quantum computation architectures use spins as carriers of quantum of information. A central problem is to efficiently generate quantum entanglement between spin qubits which proves to be a crucial resource for quantum information tasks. On the other hand, uncontrollable spin degrees of freedom in the environment of spin qubits are the major causes of errors at low temperature, for example, the lattice nuclear spins hyperfine coupled to single electron spin qubit localized in semiconductor nano-structures. An outstanding problem for scalable quantum computation is to suppress the collective fluctuations from such spin baths so that the coherence time of the spin qubit can be improved. With these two motivations, the problems of suppressing collective spin fluctuations and generating entanglement in various spin ensembles are addressed in this thesis. In the first half of the thesis, two approaches are introduced for suppressing the collective fluctuations in the nuclear spin bath so that the quantum coherence time of electron spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots can be improved. The first approach works for a coupled double dot system. A theory for the interaction with the nuclear spins is developed when the two-electron singlet state is in resonance with one of the triplet state in moderate external magnetic field. At this resonance condition, the nuclear-electron flip-flop process caused by the hyperfine interaction can lead to a feedback mechanism, which can be used to suppress the nuclear hyperfine field. The second approach works for a single dot system. It is shown that strong pumping of the nuclear spins in dynamic nuclear polarization processes can saturate the nuclear spin bath towards the collective “dark states”. In such dark states, the transverse nuclear field fluctuation can be substantially suppressed compared to the value at thermal equilibrium. Two physical schemes are proposed to realize the nuclear dark states for suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations. In the second half of the thesis, schemes are presented for generating large scale quantum entanglement in two types of spin qubit systems. For atomic spin qubits in optical lattices, schemes are proposed on how to prepare pure spin coherent state (SCS) with low collective spin by incoherent pumping with collective spin raising and lowering operations. Such SCS realize networks of mutually entangled spins which can be idea resources for the quantum telecloning algorithm. For donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon architecture, proposals are shown on how to deterministic prepare Dicke states which constitute an important class of multipartite entangled states. Our scheme is capable of preparing both symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which form a complete basis set of the spin Hilbert space. The required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane’s quantum computer. The preparation is robust because each desired Dicke state is the steady state under designed pumping process. The schemes presented here also make possible the construction of decoherence free subspaces where quantum information is protected from collective noises.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysics
 
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral
 
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy
 
dc.identifier.hkulb4832979
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)
 
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B48329794
 
dc.subject.lcshQuantum theory - Data processing.
 
dc.titleSuppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble
 
dc.typePG_Thesis
 
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<contributor.author>Luo, Yu</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>&#32599;&#37057;</contributor.author>
<date.issued>2012</date.issued>
<description.abstract>&#65279;Spin degrees of freedom have been extensively explored in the context of quantum information processing. Many proposals of quantum computation architectures use spins as carriers of quantum of information. A central problem is to efficiently generate quantum entanglement between spin qubits which proves to be a crucial resource for quantum information tasks. On the other hand, uncontrollable spin degrees of freedom in the environment of spin qubits are the major causes of errors at low temperature, for example, the lattice nuclear spins hyperfine coupled to single electron spin qubit localized in semiconductor nano-structures. An outstanding problem for scalable quantum computation is to suppress the collective fluctuations from such spin baths so that the coherence time of the spin qubit can be improved. With these two motivations, the problems of suppressing collective spin fluctuations and generating entanglement in various spin ensembles are addressed in this thesis.



In the first half of the thesis, two approaches are introduced for suppressing the collective fluctuations in the nuclear spin bath so that the quantum coherence time of electron spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots can be improved. The first approach works for a coupled double dot system. A theory for the interaction with the nuclear spins is developed when the two-electron singlet state is in resonance with one of the triplet state in moderate external magnetic field. At this resonance condition, the nuclear-electron flip-flop process caused by the hyperfine interaction can lead to a feedback mechanism, which can be used to suppress the nuclear hyperfine field. The second approach works for a single dot system. It is shown that strong pumping of the nuclear spins in dynamic nuclear polarization processes can saturate the nuclear spin bath towards the collective &#8220;dark states&#8221;. In such dark states, the transverse nuclear field fluctuation can be substantially suppressed compared to the value at thermal equilibrium. Two physical schemes are proposed to realize the nuclear dark states for suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations.



In the second half of the thesis, schemes are presented for generating large scale quantum entanglement in two types of spin qubit systems. For atomic spin qubits in optical lattices, schemes are proposed on how to prepare pure spin coherent state (SCS) with low collective spin by incoherent pumping with collective spin raising and lowering operations. Such SCS realize networks of mutually entangled spins which can be idea resources for the quantum telecloning algorithm. For donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon architecture, proposals are shown on how to deterministic prepare Dicke states which constitute an important class of multipartite entangled states. Our scheme is capable of preparing both symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which form a complete basis set of the spin Hilbert space. The required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane&#8217;s quantum computer. The preparation is robust because each desired Dicke state is the steady state under designed pumping process. The schemes presented here also make possible the construction of decoherence free subspaces where quantum information is protected from collective noises.</description.abstract>
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<publisher>The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)</relation.ispartof>
<rights>The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.</rights>
<rights>Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License</rights>
<source.uri>http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B48329794</source.uri>
<subject.lcsh>Quantum theory - Data processing.</subject.lcsh>
<title>Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble</title>
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<identifier.hkul>b4832979</identifier.hkul>
<description.thesisname>Doctor of Philosophy</description.thesisname>
<description.thesislevel>doctoral</description.thesislevel>
<description.thesisdiscipline>Physics</description.thesisdiscipline>
<description.nature>published_or_final_version</description.nature>
<date.hkucongregation>2012</date.hkucongregation>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/173938/1/FullText.pdf</bitstream.url>
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