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postgraduate thesis: Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble
Title  Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble 

Authors  
Advisors  Advisor(s):Yao, W 
Issue Date  2012 
Publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) 
Citation  Luo, Y. [罗郁]. (2012). Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4832979 
Abstract  Spin degrees of freedom have been extensively explored in the context of quantum information processing. Many proposals of quantum computation architectures use spins as carriers of quantum of information. A central problem is to efficiently generate quantum entanglement between spin qubits which proves to be a crucial resource for quantum information tasks. On the other hand, uncontrollable spin degrees of freedom in the environment of spin qubits are the major causes of errors at low temperature, for example, the lattice nuclear spins hyperfine coupled to single electron spin qubit localized in semiconductor nanostructures. An outstanding problem for scalable quantum computation is to suppress the collective fluctuations from such spin baths so that the coherence time of the spin qubit can be improved. With these two motivations, the problems of suppressing collective spin fluctuations and generating entanglement in various spin ensembles are addressed in this thesis.
In the first half of the thesis, two approaches are introduced for suppressing the collective fluctuations in the nuclear spin bath so that the quantum coherence time of electron spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots can be improved. The first approach works for a coupled double dot system. A theory for the interaction with the nuclear spins is developed when the twoelectron singlet state is in resonance with one of the triplet state in moderate external magnetic field. At this resonance condition, the nuclearelectron flipflop process caused by the hyperfine interaction can lead to a feedback mechanism, which can be used to suppress the nuclear hyperfine field. The second approach works for a single dot system. It is shown that strong pumping of the nuclear spins in dynamic nuclear polarization processes can saturate the nuclear spin bath towards the collective “dark states”. In such dark states, the transverse nuclear field fluctuation can be substantially suppressed compared to the value at thermal equilibrium. Two physical schemes are proposed to realize the nuclear dark states for suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations.
In the second half of the thesis, schemes are presented for generating large scale quantum entanglement in two types of spin qubit systems. For atomic spin qubits in optical lattices, schemes are proposed on how to prepare pure spin coherent state (SCS) with low collective spin by incoherent pumping with collective spin raising and lowering operations. Such SCS realize networks of mutually entangled spins which can be idea resources for the quantum telecloning algorithm. For donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon architecture, proposals are shown on how to deterministic prepare Dicke states which constitute an important class of multipartite entangled states. Our scheme is capable of preparing both symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which form a complete basis set of the spin Hilbert space. The required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane’s quantum computer. The preparation is robust because each desired Dicke state is the steady state under designed pumping process. The schemes presented here also make possible the construction of decoherence free subspaces where quantum information is protected from collective noises. 
Degree  Doctor of Philosophy 
Subject  Quantum theory  Data processing. 
Dept/Program  Physics 
Persistent Identifier  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/173938 
HKU Library Item ID  b4832979 
DC Field  Value  Language 

dc.contributor.advisor  Yao, W   
dc.contributor.author  Luo, Yu   
dc.contributor.author  罗郁   
dc.date.issued  2012   
dc.identifier.citation  Luo, Y. [罗郁]. (2012). Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4832979   
dc.identifier.uri  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/173938   
dc.description.abstract  Spin degrees of freedom have been extensively explored in the context of quantum information processing. Many proposals of quantum computation architectures use spins as carriers of quantum of information. A central problem is to efficiently generate quantum entanglement between spin qubits which proves to be a crucial resource for quantum information tasks. On the other hand, uncontrollable spin degrees of freedom in the environment of spin qubits are the major causes of errors at low temperature, for example, the lattice nuclear spins hyperfine coupled to single electron spin qubit localized in semiconductor nanostructures. An outstanding problem for scalable quantum computation is to suppress the collective fluctuations from such spin baths so that the coherence time of the spin qubit can be improved. With these two motivations, the problems of suppressing collective spin fluctuations and generating entanglement in various spin ensembles are addressed in this thesis. In the first half of the thesis, two approaches are introduced for suppressing the collective fluctuations in the nuclear spin bath so that the quantum coherence time of electron spin qubit in semiconductor quantum dots can be improved. The first approach works for a coupled double dot system. A theory for the interaction with the nuclear spins is developed when the twoelectron singlet state is in resonance with one of the triplet state in moderate external magnetic field. At this resonance condition, the nuclearelectron flipflop process caused by the hyperfine interaction can lead to a feedback mechanism, which can be used to suppress the nuclear hyperfine field. The second approach works for a single dot system. It is shown that strong pumping of the nuclear spins in dynamic nuclear polarization processes can saturate the nuclear spin bath towards the collective “dark states”. In such dark states, the transverse nuclear field fluctuation can be substantially suppressed compared to the value at thermal equilibrium. Two physical schemes are proposed to realize the nuclear dark states for suppression of the nuclear field fluctuations. In the second half of the thesis, schemes are presented for generating large scale quantum entanglement in two types of spin qubit systems. For atomic spin qubits in optical lattices, schemes are proposed on how to prepare pure spin coherent state (SCS) with low collective spin by incoherent pumping with collective spin raising and lowering operations. Such SCS realize networks of mutually entangled spins which can be idea resources for the quantum telecloning algorithm. For donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon architecture, proposals are shown on how to deterministic prepare Dicke states which constitute an important class of multipartite entangled states. Our scheme is capable of preparing both symmetric and asymmetric Dicke states which form a complete basis set of the spin Hilbert space. The required controls are in situ to the prototype Kane’s quantum computer. The preparation is robust because each desired Dicke state is the steady state under designed pumping process. The schemes presented here also make possible the construction of decoherence free subspaces where quantum information is protected from collective noises.   
dc.language  eng   
dc.publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)   
dc.relation.ispartof  HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)   
dc.rights  The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.   
dc.rights  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialNoDerivatives 4.0 International License.   
dc.source.uri  http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B48329794   
dc.subject.lcsh  Quantum theory  Data processing.   
dc.title  Suppression of collective fluctuations and generation of entanglement in a spin ensemble   
dc.type  PG_Thesis   
dc.identifier.hkul  b4832979   
dc.description.thesisname  Doctor of Philosophy   
dc.description.thesislevel  Doctoral   
dc.description.thesisdiscipline  Physics   
dc.description.nature  published_or_final_version   
dc.identifier.doi  10.5353/th_b4832979   
dc.date.hkucongregation  2012   