File Download
  Links for fulltext
     (May Require Subscription)
Supplementary

Article: The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

TitleThe epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpediatr/
Citation
BMC Pediatrics, 2012, v. 12, article no. 78 How to Cite?
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5-4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. METHODS: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003-2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. RESULTS: The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6-12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5-5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8-9.6); 13-17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3-3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0-7.8); 18-24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3); 25-45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00-0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6-12 years was 2.1 fold compared to an increase of 1.9 fold for their male counterparts. Prevalence of treated ADHD decreased with increasing age. Incidence (per 1000 persons at risk in the mid-year THIN population) was highest for children aged 6-12 years. CONCLUSIONS: A trend of increasing prescribing prevalence of ADHD drug treatment was observed over the period 2003-2008. Prevalence of prescribing to adult patients increased; however the numbers treated are much lower than published estimates of the prevalence of ADHD. This study has added to the limited knowledge on ADHD prescribing in primary care, particularly in the area of drug treatment in adulthood.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/164474
ISSN
2013 Impact Factor: 1.918
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.064
PubMed Central ID
ISI Accession Number ID

 

Author Affiliations
  1. Shire Pharmaceuticals LLC
  2. UCL
  3. The University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
  4. King's College London
  5. Cork University Hospital
  6. University College Cork
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorWilton, Len_US
dc.contributor.authorMurray, MLen_US
dc.contributor.authorHodgkins, Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorAsherson, Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorWong, ICKen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-09-20T08:00:13Z-
dc.date.available2012-09-20T08:00:13Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationBMC Pediatrics, 2012, v. 12, article no. 78en_US
dc.identifier.issn1471-2431-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/164474-
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5-4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. METHODS: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003-2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. RESULTS: The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6-12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5-5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8-9.6); 13-17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3-3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0-7.8); 18-24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3); 25-45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06-0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00-0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6-12 years was 2.1 fold compared to an increase of 1.9 fold for their male counterparts. Prevalence of treated ADHD decreased with increasing age. Incidence (per 1000 persons at risk in the mid-year THIN population) was highest for children aged 6-12 years. CONCLUSIONS: A trend of increasing prescribing prevalence of ADHD drug treatment was observed over the period 2003-2008. Prevalence of prescribing to adult patients increased; however the numbers treated are much lower than published estimates of the prevalence of ADHD. This study has added to the limited knowledge on ADHD prescribing in primary care, particularly in the area of drug treatment in adulthood.-
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpediatr/-
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Pediatricsen_US
dc.rightsBMC Pediatrics. Copyright © BioMed Central Ltd.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.titleThe epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary careen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailWong, ICK: wongick@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityWong, ICK=rp01480en_US
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1471-2431-12-78-
dc.identifier.pmid22712630-
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3472167-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84862300420-
dc.identifier.hkuros207134en_US
dc.identifier.volume12, article no. 78en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000310372200001-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-

Export via OAI-PMH Interface in XML Formats


OR


Export to Other Non-XML Formats