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Article: Physical mechanisms of river waterfall tufa (travertine) formation

TitlePhysical mechanisms of river waterfall tufa (travertine) formation
Authors
Issue Date2001
PublisherS E P M - Society for Sedimentary Geology. The Journal's web site is located at http://jsedres.sepmonline.org
Citation
Journal Of Sedimentary Research, 2001, v. 71 n. 1, p. 205-216 How to Cite?
AbstractWaterfall tufa is widely distributed around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical karst areas. In these areas river water is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite, and the precipitation occurs mainly at waterfall and cascade sites. Development of waterfall tufa has been described as simply being the result of water turbulence. We believe, however, that three physical effects can lead to tufa deposition at waterfall sites: aeration, jet-flow, and low-pressure effects. The three physical effects are induced by two basic changes in the water: an accelerated flow velocity, and enlargement of the airwater interface area. These two changes increase the rate of CO 2 out-gassing and the SI C, so that a high degree of supersaturation is achieved, which then induces calcite precipitation. These "waterfall effects" have been simulated in laboratory and field experiments, and each of them can accelerate, or trigger, calcite precipitation. Field measurements of river water chemistry also show that tufa deposition occurred only at waterfall sites. In these experiments and observations, waterfall effects play the most important role in triggering and accelerating CO 2 outgassing rates. Field and laboratory observations indicate that plants and evaporation also play important roles in tufa formation. Growth of algae and mosses on tufa surfaces can provide substrates for calcite nucleation and can trap detrital calcite, accelerating tufa deposition. However, the prerequisite for such deposition at waterfall sites is a high degree of supersaturation in river water, which is mainly caused by waterfall effects. Evaporation can lead to supersaturation in sprays and thin water films at a waterfall site and cause the precipitation of dissolved CaCO 3, but the amount of such deposition is relatively small. Copyright © 2001, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/157741
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.119
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.381
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, DDen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Yen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhu Xing Cheng, ANen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-08-08T08:55:32Z-
dc.date.available2012-08-08T08:55:32Z-
dc.date.issued2001en_US
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Sedimentary Research, 2001, v. 71 n. 1, p. 205-216en_US
dc.identifier.issn1527-1404en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/157741-
dc.description.abstractWaterfall tufa is widely distributed around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical karst areas. In these areas river water is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite, and the precipitation occurs mainly at waterfall and cascade sites. Development of waterfall tufa has been described as simply being the result of water turbulence. We believe, however, that three physical effects can lead to tufa deposition at waterfall sites: aeration, jet-flow, and low-pressure effects. The three physical effects are induced by two basic changes in the water: an accelerated flow velocity, and enlargement of the airwater interface area. These two changes increase the rate of CO 2 out-gassing and the SI C, so that a high degree of supersaturation is achieved, which then induces calcite precipitation. These "waterfall effects" have been simulated in laboratory and field experiments, and each of them can accelerate, or trigger, calcite precipitation. Field measurements of river water chemistry also show that tufa deposition occurred only at waterfall sites. In these experiments and observations, waterfall effects play the most important role in triggering and accelerating CO 2 outgassing rates. Field and laboratory observations indicate that plants and evaporation also play important roles in tufa formation. Growth of algae and mosses on tufa surfaces can provide substrates for calcite nucleation and can trap detrital calcite, accelerating tufa deposition. However, the prerequisite for such deposition at waterfall sites is a high degree of supersaturation in river water, which is mainly caused by waterfall effects. Evaporation can lead to supersaturation in sprays and thin water films at a waterfall site and cause the precipitation of dissolved CaCO 3, but the amount of such deposition is relatively small. Copyright © 2001, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherS E P M - Society for Sedimentary Geology. The Journal's web site is located at http://jsedres.sepmonline.orgen_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Sedimentary Researchen_US
dc.titlePhysical mechanisms of river waterfall tufa (travertine) formationen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailZhang, DD:zhangd@hkucc.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityZhang, DD=rp00649en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0012230354en_US
dc.identifier.hkuros57555-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0012230354&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume71en_US
dc.identifier.issue1en_US
dc.identifier.spage205en_US
dc.identifier.epage216en_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhang, DD=9732911600en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhang, Y=15739106800en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhu Xing Cheng, AN=24328917700en_US

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