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Article: Dispersion of coughed droplets in a fully-occupied high-speed rail cabin
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TitleDispersion of coughed droplets in a fully-occupied high-speed rail cabin
 
AuthorsZhang, L1
Li, Y1
 
KeywordsAir supply
Airflow patterns
Cfd simulations
Different boundary condition
Dispersion characteristics
 
Issue Date2012
 
PublisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv
 
CitationBuilding and Environment, 2012, v. 47, p. 58-66 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.03.015
 
AbstractThe dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by coughing of an individual in a high speed rail cabin is studied using CFD simulations. The cabin is fully-occupied by 48 passengers with a seating arrangement of 12 rows and 4 columns. Four cases of different boundary conditions of air supply and exhausts are studied. The droplets dispersion characteristics and the maximum dispersion distances under specified ventilation conditions are studied.All 48 passengers are simulated by relatively realistic three-dimensional thermal manikins. The coughing individual is located on an aisle seat in the seventh row. The duration of a single cough is assumed to be 0.4 s; and a time-dependent coughing velocity profile is used. Within the first 10 s after coughing, a separation phenomenon of the so-called ' old' and ' new' droplets is observed. The ' old' droplets generated in the first 0.2 s escaped from the body plume, and were injected into the lower zone of the cabin. These droplets stayed longer in the lower zone of the cabin. The ' new' droplets generated in the next 0.2 s, had a relatively small velocity, and thus followed the upward body plume, entering directly the upper zone. The luggage rack also has an effect on the airflow patterns in the HSR cabin. The droplets removal ability is stronger when there is a through flow from the front door to back. However, in this situation, the droplets can disperse much further and affect more passengers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
 
ISSN0360-1323
2012 Impact Factor: 2.43
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.267
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.03.015
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000295662100009
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grant Committee of the Hong Kong SAR GovernmentHKU 714608E
Funding Information:

This project is supported by Research Grant Committee of the Hong Kong SAR Government through Project HKU 714608E:ConnectVent - Ventilation of "connected" indoor environments in controlling airborne disease transmission.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
GrantsConnectVent - Ventilation of"connected"indoor environments in controlling airborne disease transmission
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorZhang, L
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Y
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-08-08T08:45:30Z
 
dc.date.available2012-08-08T08:45:30Z
 
dc.date.issued2012
 
dc.description.abstractThe dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by coughing of an individual in a high speed rail cabin is studied using CFD simulations. The cabin is fully-occupied by 48 passengers with a seating arrangement of 12 rows and 4 columns. Four cases of different boundary conditions of air supply and exhausts are studied. The droplets dispersion characteristics and the maximum dispersion distances under specified ventilation conditions are studied.All 48 passengers are simulated by relatively realistic three-dimensional thermal manikins. The coughing individual is located on an aisle seat in the seventh row. The duration of a single cough is assumed to be 0.4 s; and a time-dependent coughing velocity profile is used. Within the first 10 s after coughing, a separation phenomenon of the so-called ' old' and ' new' droplets is observed. The ' old' droplets generated in the first 0.2 s escaped from the body plume, and were injected into the lower zone of the cabin. These droplets stayed longer in the lower zone of the cabin. The ' new' droplets generated in the next 0.2 s, had a relatively small velocity, and thus followed the upward body plume, entering directly the upper zone. The luggage rack also has an effect on the airflow patterns in the HSR cabin. The droplets removal ability is stronger when there is a through flow from the front door to back. However, in this situation, the droplets can disperse much further and affect more passengers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationBuilding and Environment, 2012, v. 47, p. 58-66 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.03.015
 
dc.identifier.citeulike9189599
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.03.015
 
dc.identifier.epage66
 
dc.identifier.hkuros209880
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000295662100009
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grant Committee of the Hong Kong SAR GovernmentHKU 714608E
Funding Information:

This project is supported by Research Grant Committee of the Hong Kong SAR Government through Project HKU 714608E:ConnectVent - Ventilation of "connected" indoor environments in controlling airborne disease transmission.

 
dc.identifier.issn0360-1323
2012 Impact Factor: 2.43
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.267
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-80052799719
 
dc.identifier.spage58
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/157141
 
dc.identifier.volume47
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
 
dc.relation.ispartofBuilding and Environment
 
dc.relation.projectConnectVent - Ventilation of"connected"indoor environments in controlling airborne disease transmission
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subjectAir supply
 
dc.subjectAirflow patterns
 
dc.subjectCfd simulations
 
dc.subjectDifferent boundary condition
 
dc.subjectDispersion characteristics
 
dc.titleDispersion of coughed droplets in a fully-occupied high-speed rail cabin
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<description.abstract>The dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by coughing of an individual in a high speed rail cabin is studied using CFD simulations. The cabin is fully-occupied by 48 passengers with a seating arrangement of 12 rows and 4 columns. Four cases of different boundary conditions of air supply and exhausts are studied. The droplets dispersion characteristics and the maximum dispersion distances under specified ventilation conditions are studied.All 48 passengers are simulated by relatively realistic three-dimensional thermal manikins. The coughing individual is located on an aisle seat in the seventh row. The duration of a single cough is assumed to be 0.4 s; and a time-dependent coughing velocity profile is used. Within the first 10 s after coughing, a separation phenomenon of the so-called &apos; old&apos; and &apos; new&apos; droplets is observed. The &apos; old&apos; droplets generated in the first 0.2 s escaped from the body plume, and were injected into the lower zone of the cabin. These droplets stayed longer in the lower zone of the cabin. The &apos; new&apos; droplets generated in the next 0.2 s, had a relatively small velocity, and thus followed the upward body plume, entering directly the upper zone. The luggage rack also has an effect on the airflow patterns in the HSR cabin. The droplets removal ability is stronger when there is a through flow from the front door to back. However, in this situation, the droplets can disperse much further and affect more passengers. &#169; 2011 Elsevier Ltd.</description.abstract>
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<subject>Air supply</subject>
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong