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Article: Prepayment was superior to postpayment cash incentives in a randomized postal survey among physicians

TitlePrepayment was superior to postpayment cash incentives in a randomized postal survey among physicians
Authors
KeywordsEpidemiologic methods
Hong Kong
Incentives
Physicians
Response rates
Issue Date2004
PublisherElsevier Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jclinepi
Citation
Journal Of Clinical Epidemiology, 2004, v. 57 n. 8, p. 777-784 How to Cite?
AbstractObjective Improving response rates, particularly among physicians, is important to minimize nonresponder bias and increase the effective sample size in epidemiologic research. We conducted a randomized trial to examine the impact of prepayment vs. postpayment incentives on response rates. Study design and setting Self-completion postal questionnaires were mailed to 949 physicians who were respondents to an earlier survey and representative of the general physician population in Hong Kong. These physicians were randomly allocated to receive a HK$20 cash prepayment incentive that accompanied the survey (n=474) or a postpayment reward of the same amount on receipt of the completed questionnaire (n=475). Results The final prepayment response rate was 82.9%, compared with 72.5% in the postpayment arm (P < .001). Of the eight alternative incentive and follow-up strategies evaluated, three lie on the efficiency frontier (i.e., not dominated), including postpayment with three mailings at HK$42.7, prepayment with three mailings at HK$66.5 and prepayment with three mailings and telephone follow-up at HK$112.1 per responder recruited (US$1=HK$7.8). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that prepayment cash incentives are superior to postpayment of the equivalent amount in improving response rates among a representative sample of Hong Kong physicians. Further research should concentrate on confirming the generalizability of these findings in other health care occupation groups and settings. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151665
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 4.703
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.559
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLeung, GMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJohnston, JMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSaing, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorTin, KYKen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWong, IOLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHo, LMen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:26:18Z-
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:26:18Z-
dc.date.issued2004en_HK
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Clinical Epidemiology, 2004, v. 57 n. 8, p. 777-784en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0895-4356en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151665-
dc.description.abstractObjective Improving response rates, particularly among physicians, is important to minimize nonresponder bias and increase the effective sample size in epidemiologic research. We conducted a randomized trial to examine the impact of prepayment vs. postpayment incentives on response rates. Study design and setting Self-completion postal questionnaires were mailed to 949 physicians who were respondents to an earlier survey and representative of the general physician population in Hong Kong. These physicians were randomly allocated to receive a HK$20 cash prepayment incentive that accompanied the survey (n=474) or a postpayment reward of the same amount on receipt of the completed questionnaire (n=475). Results The final prepayment response rate was 82.9%, compared with 72.5% in the postpayment arm (P < .001). Of the eight alternative incentive and follow-up strategies evaluated, three lie on the efficiency frontier (i.e., not dominated), including postpayment with three mailings at HK$42.7, prepayment with three mailings at HK$66.5 and prepayment with three mailings and telephone follow-up at HK$112.1 per responder recruited (US$1=HK$7.8). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that prepayment cash incentives are superior to postpayment of the equivalent amount in improving response rates among a representative sample of Hong Kong physicians. Further research should concentrate on confirming the generalizability of these findings in other health care occupation groups and settings. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherElsevier Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jclinepien_HK
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Clinical Epidemiologyen_HK
dc.rightsJournal of Clinical Epidemiology. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.-
dc.subjectEpidemiologic methodsen_HK
dc.subjectHong Kongen_HK
dc.subjectIncentivesen_HK
dc.subjectPhysiciansen_HK
dc.subjectResponse ratesen_HK
dc.subject.meshAttitude Of Health Personnelen_US
dc.subject.meshCost-Benefit Analysisen_US
dc.subject.meshFemaleen_US
dc.subject.meshHong Kongen_US
dc.subject.meshHumansen_US
dc.subject.meshMaleen_US
dc.subject.meshMotivationen_US
dc.subject.meshPhysicians - Psychologyen_US
dc.subject.meshQuestionnaires - Economicsen_US
dc.subject.meshReimbursement Mechanisms - Economics - Organization & Administrationen_US
dc.subject.meshSelection Biasen_US
dc.titlePrepayment was superior to postpayment cash incentives in a randomized postal survey among physiciansen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailLeung, GM: gmleung@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailJohnston, JM: jjohnsto@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailTin, KYK: tinyiukei@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailWong, IOL: iolwong@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailHo, LM: lmho@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityLeung, GM=rp00460en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityJohnston, JM=rp00375en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityTin, KYK=rp00494en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityWong, IOL=rp01806en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityHo, LM=rp00360en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.12.021en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid15485729-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-5644243061en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros111678-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-5644243061&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume57en_HK
dc.identifier.issue8en_HK
dc.identifier.spage777en_HK
dc.identifier.epage784en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000224719400004-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLeung, GM=7007159841en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridJohnston, JM=7403397964en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSaing, H=12786815100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridTin, KYK=7003796897en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWong, IOL=7102513940en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHo, LM=7402955625en_HK

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