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Article: The early cretaceous Yangzhaiyu lode gold deposit, north China craton: A link between craton reactivation and gold veining

TitleThe early cretaceous Yangzhaiyu lode gold deposit, north China craton: A link between craton reactivation and gold veining
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherSociety of Economic Geologists, Inc.. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.segweb.org/publications/journal.aspx
Citation
Economic Geology, 2012, v. 107 n. 1, p. 43-79 How to Cite?
Abstract
The Yangzhaiyu gold deposit is one of numerous lode gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling district, southern margin of the North China Craton. Gold mineralization is hosted in Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks and consists of auriferous quartz veins and subordinate disseminated ores in the vein-proximal alteration zone. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration is dominated by sericite + quartz + sulfide assemblages close to gold veins, and biotite + quartz + pyrite ± chlorite ± epidote alteration generally distal from mineralization. Pyrite is the predominant sulfide mineral, locally coexisting with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Gold occurs mostly as free gold enclosed in or filling microfractures of pyrite and quartz and is also present in equilibrium with Au-bearing tellurides, mainly petzite and calaverite coexisting with hessite, tellurobismuthite, and altaite. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that gold veins were deposited at intermediate temperatures (175°-313°C) from aqueous or aqueous-carbonic fluids with moderate salinity (5.14 wt% NaCl equiv). δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range mainly from 2.0 to 4.4%, whereas auriferous quartz vein samples have δ18O values of 12.4 to 9.6%, with calculated δ 18OH 2O values of 6.0 to 3.2%. Gold-related pyrite grains yield elevated 3He/ 4He ratios (1.51-0.32 Ra) relative to crustal reservoirs and mantle-like 20Ne/ 22Ne and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios (9.90-9.68 and 0.029, respectively). The stable and noble gas isotopes thus suggest deep-seated, most likely magmatic and mantle-derived, sources for the ore fluids, sulfur and, by inference, other components in the ore system. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of ore-related sericite and biotite separates indicates two episodes of gold genesis at 134.5 to 132.3 and 124.3 to 123.7 Ma. The mineralization ages overlap zircon U-Pb ages of 141.0 ± 1.6 to 125.8 ± 1.4 Ma (2σ) for the Wenyu and Niangniangshan monzogranite Plutons and a number of mafic to intermediate dikes intruding these Plutons, all being proximal to the Yangzhaiyu gold deposit. The synchronism of gold genesis and magmatism provides additional weights of evidence for a magmatic derivation of ore fluids and sulfur. The geochronologic data also suggest that gold veining took place billions of years after the stabilization of the North China Craton and associated metamorphism in the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic. This contrasts sharply to lode gold deposits in other Precambrian cratons that formed predominantly in Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic, temporarily and genetically related to regional high-grade metamorphism and compressional or transpressional tectonism. Available data have demonstrated that the North China Craton was reactivated in the late Mesozoic, as marked by voluminous igneous rocks, faulted-basin formation, high crustal heat flow, and widespread metamorphic core complexes in the eastern part of the craton. It is thus suggested that the Yangzhaiyu gold deposit, together with other deposits of similar ages in the Xiaoqinling district, were products of this craton reactivation event. Lithospheric extension and extensive magmatism related to the craton reactivation may have provided sufficient heat energy, fluid, and sulfur required for the formation of the gold deposits. © 2012 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151354
ISSN
2013 Impact Factor: 2.270
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.271
References

 

Author Affiliations
  1. University of Durham
  2. China University of Geosciences
  3. University of Queensland
  4. The University of Hong Kong
  5. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLi, JWen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, ZKen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, MFen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Len_US
dc.contributor.authorBi, SJen_US
dc.contributor.authorDeng, XDen_US
dc.contributor.authorQiu, HNen_US
dc.contributor.authorCohen, Ben_US
dc.contributor.authorSelby, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, XFen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:21:02Z-
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:21:02Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationEconomic Geology, 2012, v. 107 n. 1, p. 43-79en_US
dc.identifier.issn0361-0128en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151354-
dc.description.abstractThe Yangzhaiyu gold deposit is one of numerous lode gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling district, southern margin of the North China Craton. Gold mineralization is hosted in Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks and consists of auriferous quartz veins and subordinate disseminated ores in the vein-proximal alteration zone. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration is dominated by sericite + quartz + sulfide assemblages close to gold veins, and biotite + quartz + pyrite ± chlorite ± epidote alteration generally distal from mineralization. Pyrite is the predominant sulfide mineral, locally coexisting with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Gold occurs mostly as free gold enclosed in or filling microfractures of pyrite and quartz and is also present in equilibrium with Au-bearing tellurides, mainly petzite and calaverite coexisting with hessite, tellurobismuthite, and altaite. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that gold veins were deposited at intermediate temperatures (175°-313°C) from aqueous or aqueous-carbonic fluids with moderate salinity (5.14 wt% NaCl equiv). δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range mainly from 2.0 to 4.4%, whereas auriferous quartz vein samples have δ18O values of 12.4 to 9.6%, with calculated δ 18OH 2O values of 6.0 to 3.2%. Gold-related pyrite grains yield elevated 3He/ 4He ratios (1.51-0.32 Ra) relative to crustal reservoirs and mantle-like 20Ne/ 22Ne and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios (9.90-9.68 and 0.029, respectively). The stable and noble gas isotopes thus suggest deep-seated, most likely magmatic and mantle-derived, sources for the ore fluids, sulfur and, by inference, other components in the ore system. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of ore-related sericite and biotite separates indicates two episodes of gold genesis at 134.5 to 132.3 and 124.3 to 123.7 Ma. The mineralization ages overlap zircon U-Pb ages of 141.0 ± 1.6 to 125.8 ± 1.4 Ma (2σ) for the Wenyu and Niangniangshan monzogranite Plutons and a number of mafic to intermediate dikes intruding these Plutons, all being proximal to the Yangzhaiyu gold deposit. The synchronism of gold genesis and magmatism provides additional weights of evidence for a magmatic derivation of ore fluids and sulfur. The geochronologic data also suggest that gold veining took place billions of years after the stabilization of the North China Craton and associated metamorphism in the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic. This contrasts sharply to lode gold deposits in other Precambrian cratons that formed predominantly in Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic, temporarily and genetically related to regional high-grade metamorphism and compressional or transpressional tectonism. Available data have demonstrated that the North China Craton was reactivated in the late Mesozoic, as marked by voluminous igneous rocks, faulted-basin formation, high crustal heat flow, and widespread metamorphic core complexes in the eastern part of the craton. It is thus suggested that the Yangzhaiyu gold deposit, together with other deposits of similar ages in the Xiaoqinling district, were products of this craton reactivation event. Lithospheric extension and extensive magmatism related to the craton reactivation may have provided sufficient heat energy, fluid, and sulfur required for the formation of the gold deposits. © 2012 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherSociety of Economic Geologists, Inc.. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.segweb.org/publications/journal.aspxen_US
dc.relation.ispartofEconomic Geologyen_US
dc.titleThe early cretaceous Yangzhaiyu lode gold deposit, north China craton: A link between craton reactivation and gold veiningen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailZhou, MF:mfzhou@hkucc.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityZhou, MF=rp00844en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.2113/econgeo.107.1.43en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84862929851-
dc.identifier.hkuros206530-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-84855890469&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume107en_US
dc.identifier.issue1en_US
dc.identifier.spage43en_US
dc.identifier.epage79en_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLi, JW=36063037900en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLi, ZK=54896136000en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhou, MF=7403506005en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChen, L=49963308400en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBi, SJ=37032546000en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridDeng, XD=16042105200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridQiu, HN=7201608645en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridCohen, B=16644580500en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSelby, D=7005781470en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhao, XF=8942065800en_US

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