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Article: Screening for fever by remote-sensing infrared thermographic camera
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TitleScreening for fever by remote-sensing infrared thermographic camera
 
AuthorsChan, LS1
Cheung, GTY1
Lauder, IJ1
Kumana, CR1
 
Issue Date2004
 
PublisherWiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1195-1982
 
CitationJournal Of Travel Medicine, 2004, v. 11 n. 5, p. 273-279 [How to Cite?]
 
AbstractBackground: Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging to identify subjects with fever, and (2) the optimal instrumental configuration and validity for such testing. Methods: Over a 20-day inclusive period, 176 subjects (49 hospital inpatients without SARS or suspected SARS, 99 health clinic attendees and 28 healthy volunteers) were recruited. Remotely sensed IRT readings were obtained from various parts of the front and side of the face (at distances of 1.5 and 0.5 m), and compared to concurrently determined body temperature measurements using conventional means (aural tympanic IRT and oral mercury thermometry). The resulting data were submitted to linear regression/correlation and sensitivity analyses. All recruits gave prior informed consent and our Faculty Institutional Review Board approved the protocol. Results: Optimal correlations were found between conventionally measured body temperatures and IRT readings from (1) the front of the face at 1.5 m with the mouth open (r = 0.80), (2) the ear at 0.5 m (r = 0.79), and (3) the side of the face at 1.5 m (r = 0.76). Average IRT readings from the forehead and elsewhere were 1°C to 2°C lower and correlated less well. Ear IRT readings at 0.5 m yielded the narrowest confidence intervals and could be used to predict conventional body temperature readings of ≥ 38°C with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 88% respectively. Conclusions: IRT readings from the side of the face, especially from the ear at 0.5 m, yielded the most reliable, precise and consistent estimates of conventionally determined body temperatures. Our results have important implications for walk-through IRT scanning/screening systems at airports and border crossings, particularly as the point prevalence of fever in such subjects would be very low.
 
ISSN1195-1982
2013 Impact Factor: 1.525
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.738
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000224181400002
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorChan, LS
 
dc.contributor.authorCheung, GTY
 
dc.contributor.authorLauder, IJ
 
dc.contributor.authorKumana, CR
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:20:58Z
 
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:20:58Z
 
dc.date.issued2004
 
dc.description.abstractBackground: Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging to identify subjects with fever, and (2) the optimal instrumental configuration and validity for such testing. Methods: Over a 20-day inclusive period, 176 subjects (49 hospital inpatients without SARS or suspected SARS, 99 health clinic attendees and 28 healthy volunteers) were recruited. Remotely sensed IRT readings were obtained from various parts of the front and side of the face (at distances of 1.5 and 0.5 m), and compared to concurrently determined body temperature measurements using conventional means (aural tympanic IRT and oral mercury thermometry). The resulting data were submitted to linear regression/correlation and sensitivity analyses. All recruits gave prior informed consent and our Faculty Institutional Review Board approved the protocol. Results: Optimal correlations were found between conventionally measured body temperatures and IRT readings from (1) the front of the face at 1.5 m with the mouth open (r = 0.80), (2) the ear at 0.5 m (r = 0.79), and (3) the side of the face at 1.5 m (r = 0.76). Average IRT readings from the forehead and elsewhere were 1°C to 2°C lower and correlated less well. Ear IRT readings at 0.5 m yielded the narrowest confidence intervals and could be used to predict conventional body temperature readings of ≥ 38°C with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 88% respectively. Conclusions: IRT readings from the side of the face, especially from the ear at 0.5 m, yielded the most reliable, precise and consistent estimates of conventionally determined body temperatures. Our results have important implications for walk-through IRT scanning/screening systems at airports and border crossings, particularly as the point prevalence of fever in such subjects would be very low.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Travel Medicine, 2004, v. 11 n. 5, p. 273-279 [How to Cite?]
 
dc.identifier.epage279
 
dc.identifier.hkuros102787
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000224181400002
 
dc.identifier.issn1195-1982
2013 Impact Factor: 1.525
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.738
 
dc.identifier.issue5
 
dc.identifier.pmid15544710
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-8344256467
 
dc.identifier.spage273
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151351
 
dc.identifier.volume11
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1195-1982
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Travel Medicine
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subject.meshAdolescent
 
dc.subject.meshAdult
 
dc.subject.meshAerospace Medicine
 
dc.subject.meshAged
 
dc.subject.meshAged, 80 And Over
 
dc.subject.meshChild
 
dc.subject.meshChild, Preschool
 
dc.subject.meshEar
 
dc.subject.meshFeasibility Studies
 
dc.subject.meshFemale
 
dc.subject.meshFever - Diagnosis
 
dc.subject.meshHong Kong
 
dc.subject.meshHumans
 
dc.subject.meshInfant
 
dc.subject.meshLinear Models
 
dc.subject.meshMale
 
dc.subject.meshMass Screening - Methods
 
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged
 
dc.subject.meshReproducibility Of Results
 
dc.subject.meshSensitivity And Specificity
 
dc.subject.meshThermography
 
dc.subject.meshTravel
 
dc.titleScreening for fever by remote-sensing infrared thermographic camera
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<contributor.author>Cheung, GTY</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Lauder, IJ</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Kumana, CR</contributor.author>
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<description.abstract>Background: Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging to identify subjects with fever, and (2) the optimal instrumental configuration and validity for such testing. Methods: Over a 20-day inclusive period, 176 subjects (49 hospital inpatients without SARS or suspected SARS, 99 health clinic attendees and 28 healthy volunteers) were recruited. Remotely sensed IRT readings were obtained from various parts of the front and side of the face (at distances of 1.5 and 0.5 m), and compared to concurrently determined body temperature measurements using conventional means (aural tympanic IRT and oral mercury thermometry). The resulting data were submitted to linear regression/correlation and sensitivity analyses. All recruits gave prior informed consent and our Faculty Institutional Review Board approved the protocol. Results: Optimal correlations were found between conventionally measured body temperatures and IRT readings from (1) the front of the face at 1.5 m with the mouth open (r = 0.80), (2) the ear at 0.5 m (r = 0.79), and (3) the side of the face at 1.5 m (r = 0.76). Average IRT readings from the forehead and elsewhere were 1&#176;C to 2&#176;C lower and correlated less well. Ear IRT readings at 0.5 m yielded the narrowest confidence intervals and could be used to predict conventional body temperature readings of &#8805; 38&#176;C with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 88% respectively. Conclusions: IRT readings from the side of the face, especially from the ear at 0.5 m, yielded the most reliable, precise and consistent estimates of conventionally determined body temperatures. Our results have important implications for walk-through IRT scanning/screening systems at airports and border crossings, particularly as the point prevalence of fever in such subjects would be very low.</description.abstract>
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong