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Article: Lead concentrations and isotopes in corals and water near Bermuda, 1780-2000

TitleLead concentrations and isotopes in corals and water near Bermuda, 1780-2000
Authors
KeywordsGlobal Anthropogenic Pollution
Lead
Lead Isotopes
Pb
Pb Isotopes
Issue Date2009
PublisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/epsl
Citation
Earth And Planetary Science Letters, 2009, v. 283 n. 1-4, p. 93-100 How to Cite?
AbstractThe history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew in coastal seawaters near Bermuda and from seawater samples collected during the last 20 yr of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb emissions in this area have been dominated by the industrialization of North America beginning in the 1840s, the introduction of leaded gasoline beginning in the 1920s and its phase-out that began in the mid-1970s. The phase-out of leaded gasoline was largely completed by the late 1990s. Coral Pb concentrations occur at a constant low level of about 5 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 15 pmol/kg in seawater) from the late 1700s to ~ 1850. From ~ 1850 to ~ 1900 there is a small increase rising to a plateau at ~ 25 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 80 pmol/kg in seawater) in the 1930s until the late 1940s, at which point Pb concentrations rapidly increase to ~ 60 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 200 pmol/kg in seawater). In the mid 1970s, Pb began to decline to ~ 25 nmol Pb/Ca (40 pmol/kg in seawater) by the end of the 20th century, comparable to levels occurring in the early 20th century. Pb isotope ratios (Pb I.R.) show maximum 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.21 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.49 in the middle of the 19th century. We conclude that this signal is a reflection of the early dominance of Upper Mississippi Valley Pb ore in the United States, as previously seen in the estuarine sediments of Rhode Island. After 1900, Pb I.R. decrease only slightly until the 1960s when there is a significant local maximum in the 1970s to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.19 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.45 as low-Pb I.R. sources were phased out in the United States. Then, as US leaded gasoline utilization decreased more rapidly than European Pb gas utilization (which has lower Pb I.R.), western North Atlantic Pb I.R. decreased to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.17 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.44, their lowest values in the past two centuries. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151282
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 4.326
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 3.628
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFOCE-0751409
Kuwait/MIT Center for Natural Resources and the Environment
MIT
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science (KFAS)
Funding Information:

We thank E. Druffel and S. Griffin who generously provided the NR coral samples and chronology shown here, R. Smith and A. Cohen who provided the JSB coral samples, F. Duclas for sharing his Pb isotope database, and R. Kayser and B. Grant for laboratory assistance, and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive criticism. This research was supported by NSF Grant OCE-0751409 and partially supported by the Kuwait/MIT Center for Natural Resources and the Environment, a partnership between MIT and the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science (KFAS).

References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorKelly, AEen_US
dc.contributor.authorReuer, MKen_US
dc.contributor.authorGoodkin, NFen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoyle, EAen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:20:01Z-
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:20:01Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.identifier.citationEarth And Planetary Science Letters, 2009, v. 283 n. 1-4, p. 93-100en_US
dc.identifier.issn0012-821Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/151282-
dc.description.abstractThe history of the oceanic anthropogenic lead (Pb) transient in the North Atlantic Ocean for the past 220 yr is documented here from measurements of Pb concentration and isotope ratios from annually-banded corals that grew in coastal seawaters near Bermuda and from seawater samples collected during the last 20 yr of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb emissions in this area have been dominated by the industrialization of North America beginning in the 1840s, the introduction of leaded gasoline beginning in the 1920s and its phase-out that began in the mid-1970s. The phase-out of leaded gasoline was largely completed by the late 1990s. Coral Pb concentrations occur at a constant low level of about 5 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 15 pmol/kg in seawater) from the late 1700s to ~ 1850. From ~ 1850 to ~ 1900 there is a small increase rising to a plateau at ~ 25 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 80 pmol/kg in seawater) in the 1930s until the late 1940s, at which point Pb concentrations rapidly increase to ~ 60 nmol Pb/mol Ca (~ 200 pmol/kg in seawater). In the mid 1970s, Pb began to decline to ~ 25 nmol Pb/Ca (40 pmol/kg in seawater) by the end of the 20th century, comparable to levels occurring in the early 20th century. Pb isotope ratios (Pb I.R.) show maximum 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.21 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.49 in the middle of the 19th century. We conclude that this signal is a reflection of the early dominance of Upper Mississippi Valley Pb ore in the United States, as previously seen in the estuarine sediments of Rhode Island. After 1900, Pb I.R. decrease only slightly until the 1960s when there is a significant local maximum in the 1970s to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.19 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.45 as low-Pb I.R. sources were phased out in the United States. Then, as US leaded gasoline utilization decreased more rapidly than European Pb gas utilization (which has lower Pb I.R.), western North Atlantic Pb I.R. decreased to 206Pb/ 207Pb = 1.17 and 208Pb/ 207Pb = 2.44, their lowest values in the past two centuries. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/epslen_US
dc.relation.ispartofEarth and Planetary Science Lettersen_US
dc.rightsEarth and Planetary Science Letters. Copyright © Elsevier BV.-
dc.subjectGlobal Anthropogenic Pollutionen_US
dc.subjectLeaden_US
dc.subjectLead Isotopesen_US
dc.subjectPben_US
dc.subjectPb Isotopesen_US
dc.titleLead concentrations and isotopes in corals and water near Bermuda, 1780-2000en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailGoodkin, NF:goodkin@hkucc.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityGoodkin, NF=rp00700en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.epsl.2009.03.045en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-65749118834en_US
dc.identifier.hkuros155509-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-65749118834&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume283en_US
dc.identifier.issue1-4en_US
dc.identifier.spage93en_US
dc.identifier.epage100en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000267513700010-
dc.publisher.placeNetherlandsen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKelly, AE=7402153459en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridReuer, MK=7801554446en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGoodkin, NF=12446578100en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBoyle, EA=24368009800en_US

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