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Article: Tidal marsh stratigraphy, sea-level change and large earthquakes, I: A 5000 year record in Washington, U.S.A.

TitleTidal marsh stratigraphy, sea-level change and large earthquakes, I: A 5000 year record in Washington, U.S.A.
Authors
Issue Date1996
PublisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/quascirev
Citation
Quaternary Science Reviews, 1996, v. 15 n. 10, p. 1023-1059 How to Cite?
AbstractMany of the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. and Canada contain stratigraphic sequences typified by alternating peat-mud couplets. Recent studies in this region interpret such couplets as the product of repeated large (magnitude 8 or 9) earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone. The resultant pattern of land-level movements is described by a model, the 'earthquake deformation cycle', of coseismic land subsidence followed by land uplift during interseismic strain accumulation. However, peat-mud couplets similar to those recorded in the Pacific Northwest are found on other less tectonically active temperate-latitude coasts, such as northwest Europe and the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A., where they have been interpreted as the product of non-seismic coastal processes. In this paper we apply the methods and scientific framework common to sea-level investigations in northwest Europe to a sequence of peat-mud couplets recorded in the lower Johns River, an estuary in southern Washington, to provide a test of the 'earthquake deformation cycle.' Stratigraphic investigations of the intertidal sediments along the lower Johns River, using lithological, pollen, diatom and foraminiferal data, show evidence for eight coastal submergence events during the last 5000 years. To evaluate the 'earthquake deformation cycle' we assess the lateral extent of peat-mud couplets, the synchroneity of submergence, the presence of tsunami deposits accompanying submergence, and the suddenness and amount of submergence. Each submergence is shown to be accompanied by changes in coastal sedimentation broadly commensurate with those predicted by the 'earthquake deformation cycle', demonstrating the continued intermittent seismic activity of the Cascadia subduction zone throughout the mid and late-Holocene. Quantitative analyses of contemporary and fossil biostratigraphic data, using TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis, enable us to estimate the magnitude of submergence accompanying each peat-mud couplet. One event was accompanied by submergence of about 1.5 m or more, four events by intermediate submergence of about 1+0.5m, and a further three events by submergence of <0.5 m. There is evidence for non-seismic relative sea-level rise prior to two of the eight submergence events, but for at least the last 3500 years the magnitude of relative sea-level rise has been less than the combined influence of sediment accretion following submergence and interseismic land uplift.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/150989
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 4.521
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.928
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorShennan, Ien_US
dc.contributor.authorLong, AJen_US
dc.contributor.authorRutherford, MMen_US
dc.contributor.authorGreen, FMen_US
dc.contributor.authorInnes, JBen_US
dc.contributor.authorLloyd, JMen_US
dc.contributor.authorZong, Yen_US
dc.contributor.authorWalker, KJen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:15:34Z-
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:15:34Z-
dc.date.issued1996en_US
dc.identifier.citationQuaternary Science Reviews, 1996, v. 15 n. 10, p. 1023-1059en_US
dc.identifier.issn0277-3791en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/150989-
dc.description.abstractMany of the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. and Canada contain stratigraphic sequences typified by alternating peat-mud couplets. Recent studies in this region interpret such couplets as the product of repeated large (magnitude 8 or 9) earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone. The resultant pattern of land-level movements is described by a model, the 'earthquake deformation cycle', of coseismic land subsidence followed by land uplift during interseismic strain accumulation. However, peat-mud couplets similar to those recorded in the Pacific Northwest are found on other less tectonically active temperate-latitude coasts, such as northwest Europe and the Atlantic coast of the U.S.A., where they have been interpreted as the product of non-seismic coastal processes. In this paper we apply the methods and scientific framework common to sea-level investigations in northwest Europe to a sequence of peat-mud couplets recorded in the lower Johns River, an estuary in southern Washington, to provide a test of the 'earthquake deformation cycle.' Stratigraphic investigations of the intertidal sediments along the lower Johns River, using lithological, pollen, diatom and foraminiferal data, show evidence for eight coastal submergence events during the last 5000 years. To evaluate the 'earthquake deformation cycle' we assess the lateral extent of peat-mud couplets, the synchroneity of submergence, the presence of tsunami deposits accompanying submergence, and the suddenness and amount of submergence. Each submergence is shown to be accompanied by changes in coastal sedimentation broadly commensurate with those predicted by the 'earthquake deformation cycle', demonstrating the continued intermittent seismic activity of the Cascadia subduction zone throughout the mid and late-Holocene. Quantitative analyses of contemporary and fossil biostratigraphic data, using TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis, enable us to estimate the magnitude of submergence accompanying each peat-mud couplet. One event was accompanied by submergence of about 1.5 m or more, four events by intermediate submergence of about 1+0.5m, and a further three events by submergence of <0.5 m. There is evidence for non-seismic relative sea-level rise prior to two of the eight submergence events, but for at least the last 3500 years the magnitude of relative sea-level rise has been less than the combined influence of sediment accretion following submergence and interseismic land uplift.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/quascireven_US
dc.relation.ispartofQuaternary Science Reviewsen_US
dc.titleTidal marsh stratigraphy, sea-level change and large earthquakes, I: A 5000 year record in Washington, U.S.A.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailZong, Y:yqzong@hkucc.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityZong, Y=rp00846en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/S0277-3791(96)00007-8en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0030512083en_US
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0030512083&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume15en_US
dc.identifier.issue10en_US
dc.identifier.spage1023en_US
dc.identifier.epage1059en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:A1996WE69400005-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridShennan, I=7004126665en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLong, AJ=7202417094en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridRutherford, MM=7101874876en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGreen, FM=7202047755en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridInnes, JB=7102004815en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLloyd, JM=7402365382en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZong, Y=7005203454en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWalker, KJ=36874964700en_US

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