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Article: Dynamics and origin of the 2:1 orbital resonances of the GJ 876 planets

TitleDynamics and origin of the 2:1 orbital resonances of the GJ 876 planets
Authors
KeywordsCelestial Mechanics
Planetary Systems
Planets And Satellites: General
Issue Date2002
PublisherInstitute of Physics Publishing Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205
Citation
Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2002, v. 567 n. 1 I, p. 596-609 How to Cite?
AbstractThe discovery by Marcy and coworkers of two planets in 2:1 orbital resonance about the star GJ 876 has been supplemented by a dynamical fit to the data by Laughlin & Chambers, which places the planets in coplanar orbits deep in three resonances at the 2:1 mean-motion commensurability. The selection of this almost singular state by the dynamical fit means that the resonances are almost certainly real, and with the small amplitudes of libration of the resonance variables, indefinitely stable. Several unusual properties of the 2:1 resonances are revealed by the GJ 876 system. The libration of both lowest order mean-motion resonance variables and the secular resonance variable,θ1 = λ1 - 2λ2 + ω̄1, θ2 = λ1 - 2λ2 + ω̄2, and θ3 = ω̄1- ω̄2 about 0° (where λ1,2 are the mean longitudes of the inner and outer planet and ω̄1,2 are the longitudes of periapse) differs from the familiar geometry of the Io-Europa pair, where θ2 and θ3 librate about 180°. By considering the condition that ω̄1 = ω̄2 for stable simultaneous librations of θ1 and θ2, we show that the GJ 876 geometry results from the large orbital eccentricities ei, whereas the very small eccentricities in the Io-Europa system lead to the latter's geometry. Surprisingly, the GJ 876 configuration, with θ 1, θ2, and θ3 all librating, remains stable for e1 up to 0.86 and for amplitude of libration of θ1 approaching 45° with the current eccentricities - further supporting the indefinite stability of the existing system. Any process that drives originally widely separated orbits toward each other could result in capture into the observed resonances at the 2:1 commensurability. We find that forced inward migration of the outer planet of the GJ 876 system results in certain capture into the observed resonances if initially e1 ≲ 0.06 and e2 ≲ 0.03 and the migration rate | ȧ 2/a2 ≲ 3 × 10-2(a 2/AU)-3/2 yr-1. Larger eccentricities lead to likely capture into higher order resonances before the 2:1 commensurability is reached. The planets are sufficiently massive to open gaps in the nebular disk surrounding the young GJ 876 and to clear the disk material between them, and the resulting planet-nebular interaction typically forces the outer planet to migrate inward on the disk viscous timescale, whose inverse is about 3 orders of magnitude less than the above upper bound on | ȧ2/a 2 | for certain capture. If there is no eccentricity damping, eccentricity growth is rapid with continued migration within the resonance, with ei exceeding the observed values after a further reduction in the semimajor axes ai of only 7%. With eccentricity damping ėi/ei= - K | ȧi/ai, the eccentricities reach equilibrium values that remain constant for arbitrarily long migration within the resonances. The equilibrium eccentricities are close to the observed eccentricities for K ≈ 100 if there is migration and damping of the outer planet only, but for K ≈ 10 if there is also migration and damping of the inner planet. This result is independent of the magnitude or functional form of the migration rate ȧi, as long as ė i/ei = - K | ȧi/ai . Although existing analytic estimates of the effects of planet-nebula interaction are consistent with this form of eccentricity damping for certain disk parameter values, it is as yet unclear that such interaction can produce the large value of K required to obtain the observed eccentricities. The alternative eccentricity damping by tidal dissipation within the star or the planets is completely negligible, so the observed dynamical properties of the GJ 876 system may require an unlikely fine-tuning of the time of resonance capture to be near the end of the nebula lifetime.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/150929
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 5.487
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 3.369
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLee, MHen_US
dc.contributor.authorPeale, SJen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:15:00Z-
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:15:00Z-
dc.date.issued2002en_US
dc.identifier.citationAstrophysical Journal Letters, 2002, v. 567 n. 1 I, p. 596-609en_US
dc.identifier.issn2041-8205en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/150929-
dc.description.abstractThe discovery by Marcy and coworkers of two planets in 2:1 orbital resonance about the star GJ 876 has been supplemented by a dynamical fit to the data by Laughlin & Chambers, which places the planets in coplanar orbits deep in three resonances at the 2:1 mean-motion commensurability. The selection of this almost singular state by the dynamical fit means that the resonances are almost certainly real, and with the small amplitudes of libration of the resonance variables, indefinitely stable. Several unusual properties of the 2:1 resonances are revealed by the GJ 876 system. The libration of both lowest order mean-motion resonance variables and the secular resonance variable,θ1 = λ1 - 2λ2 + ω̄1, θ2 = λ1 - 2λ2 + ω̄2, and θ3 = ω̄1- ω̄2 about 0° (where λ1,2 are the mean longitudes of the inner and outer planet and ω̄1,2 are the longitudes of periapse) differs from the familiar geometry of the Io-Europa pair, where θ2 and θ3 librate about 180°. By considering the condition that ω̄1 = ω̄2 for stable simultaneous librations of θ1 and θ2, we show that the GJ 876 geometry results from the large orbital eccentricities ei, whereas the very small eccentricities in the Io-Europa system lead to the latter's geometry. Surprisingly, the GJ 876 configuration, with θ 1, θ2, and θ3 all librating, remains stable for e1 up to 0.86 and for amplitude of libration of θ1 approaching 45° with the current eccentricities - further supporting the indefinite stability of the existing system. Any process that drives originally widely separated orbits toward each other could result in capture into the observed resonances at the 2:1 commensurability. We find that forced inward migration of the outer planet of the GJ 876 system results in certain capture into the observed resonances if initially e1 ≲ 0.06 and e2 ≲ 0.03 and the migration rate | ȧ 2/a2 ≲ 3 × 10-2(a 2/AU)-3/2 yr-1. Larger eccentricities lead to likely capture into higher order resonances before the 2:1 commensurability is reached. The planets are sufficiently massive to open gaps in the nebular disk surrounding the young GJ 876 and to clear the disk material between them, and the resulting planet-nebular interaction typically forces the outer planet to migrate inward on the disk viscous timescale, whose inverse is about 3 orders of magnitude less than the above upper bound on | ȧ2/a 2 | for certain capture. If there is no eccentricity damping, eccentricity growth is rapid with continued migration within the resonance, with ei exceeding the observed values after a further reduction in the semimajor axes ai of only 7%. With eccentricity damping ėi/ei= - K | ȧi/ai, the eccentricities reach equilibrium values that remain constant for arbitrarily long migration within the resonances. The equilibrium eccentricities are close to the observed eccentricities for K ≈ 100 if there is migration and damping of the outer planet only, but for K ≈ 10 if there is also migration and damping of the inner planet. This result is independent of the magnitude or functional form of the migration rate ȧi, as long as ė i/ei = - K | ȧi/ai . Although existing analytic estimates of the effects of planet-nebula interaction are consistent with this form of eccentricity damping for certain disk parameter values, it is as yet unclear that such interaction can produce the large value of K required to obtain the observed eccentricities. The alternative eccentricity damping by tidal dissipation within the star or the planets is completely negligible, so the observed dynamical properties of the GJ 876 system may require an unlikely fine-tuning of the time of resonance capture to be near the end of the nebula lifetime.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherInstitute of Physics Publishing Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journal Lettersen_US
dc.subjectCelestial Mechanicsen_US
dc.subjectPlanetary Systemsen_US
dc.subjectPlanets And Satellites: Generalen_US
dc.titleDynamics and origin of the 2:1 orbital resonances of the GJ 876 planetsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailLee, MH:mhlee@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityLee, MH=rp00724en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1086/338504en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0000964551en_US
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0000964551&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume567en_US
dc.identifier.issue1 Ien_US
dc.identifier.spage596en_US
dc.identifier.epage609en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000174047700055-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLee, MH=7409119699en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPeale, SJ=6602697819en_US
dc.identifier.citeulike6566902-

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