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Article: Water saturation shift referencing (WASSR) for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments
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TitleWater saturation shift referencing (WASSR) for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments
 
AuthorsKim, M2 1
Gillen, J2 1
Landman, BA2
Zhou, J2 1
Van Zijl, PCM2 1 2
 
Issue Date2009
 
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0740-3194/
 
CitationMagnetic Resonance In Medicine, 2009, v. 61 n. 6, p. 1441-1450 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.21873
 
AbstractChemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a contrast mechanism that exploits exchange-based magnetization transfer (MT) between solute and water protons. CEST effects compete with direct water saturation and conventional MT processes, and generally can only be quantified through an asymmetry analysis of the water saturation spectrum (Z-spectrum) with respect to the water frequency, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneities. Here it is shown that direct water saturation imaging allows measurement of the absolute water frequency in each voxel, allowing proper centering of Z-spectra on a voxel-by-voxel basis independently of spatial B0 field variations. Optimal acquisition parameters for this "water saturation shift referencing" (WASSR) approach were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations and later confirmed experimentally. The optimal ratio of the WASSR sweep width to the linewidth of the direct saturation curve was found to be 3.3- 4.0, requiring a sampling of 16-32 points. The frequency error was smaller than 1 Hz at signal-to-noise ratios of 40 or higher. The WASSR method was applied to study glycogen, where the chemical shift difference between the hydroxyl (OH) protons and bulk water protons at 3T is so small (0.75-1.25 ppm) that the CEST spectrum is inconclusive without proper referencing. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
 
ISSN0740-3194
2012 Impact Factor: 3.267
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.826
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.21873
 
PubMed Central IDPMC2860191
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000266429900019
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Institutes of HealthNIH-NCRR P41-RR15241
NIH-NIBIB R01-EB02634
R21-EB02666
Philips Medical Systems
Funding Information:

Grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health; Grant numbers: NIH-NCRR P41-RR15241; NIH-NIBIB R01-EB02634; R21-EB02666; Grant sponsor: Philips Medical Systems.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorKim, M
 
dc.contributor.authorGillen, J
 
dc.contributor.authorLandman, BA
 
dc.contributor.authorZhou, J
 
dc.contributor.authorVan Zijl, PCM
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-06-26T06:14:21Z
 
dc.date.available2012-06-26T06:14:21Z
 
dc.date.issued2009
 
dc.description.abstractChemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a contrast mechanism that exploits exchange-based magnetization transfer (MT) between solute and water protons. CEST effects compete with direct water saturation and conventional MT processes, and generally can only be quantified through an asymmetry analysis of the water saturation spectrum (Z-spectrum) with respect to the water frequency, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneities. Here it is shown that direct water saturation imaging allows measurement of the absolute water frequency in each voxel, allowing proper centering of Z-spectra on a voxel-by-voxel basis independently of spatial B0 field variations. Optimal acquisition parameters for this "water saturation shift referencing" (WASSR) approach were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations and later confirmed experimentally. The optimal ratio of the WASSR sweep width to the linewidth of the direct saturation curve was found to be 3.3- 4.0, requiring a sampling of 16-32 points. The frequency error was smaller than 1 Hz at signal-to-noise ratios of 40 or higher. The WASSR method was applied to study glycogen, where the chemical shift difference between the hydroxyl (OH) protons and bulk water protons at 3T is so small (0.75-1.25 ppm) that the CEST spectrum is inconclusive without proper referencing. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_OA_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationMagnetic Resonance In Medicine, 2009, v. 61 n. 6, p. 1441-1450 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.21873
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.21873
 
dc.identifier.epage1450
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000266429900019
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Institutes of HealthNIH-NCRR P41-RR15241
NIH-NIBIB R01-EB02634
R21-EB02666
Philips Medical Systems
Funding Information:

Grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health; Grant numbers: NIH-NCRR P41-RR15241; NIH-NIBIB R01-EB02634; R21-EB02666; Grant sponsor: Philips Medical Systems.

 
dc.identifier.issn0740-3194
2012 Impact Factor: 3.267
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.826
 
dc.identifier.issue6
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2860191
 
dc.identifier.pmid19358232
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-67049160813
 
dc.identifier.spage1441
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/150911
 
dc.identifier.volume61
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0740-3194/
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subject.meshAdult
 
dc.subject.meshAlgorithms
 
dc.subject.meshBody Water - Metabolism
 
dc.subject.meshFemale
 
dc.subject.meshHumans
 
dc.subject.meshImage Enhancement - Methods
 
dc.subject.meshImage Interpretation, Computer-Assisted - Methods
 
dc.subject.meshMagnetic Resonance Imaging - Methods
 
dc.subject.meshMale
 
dc.subject.meshMuscle, Skeletal - Anatomy & Histology - Metabolism
 
dc.subject.meshReproducibility Of Results
 
dc.subject.meshSensitivity And Specificity
 
dc.subject.meshWater - Analysis
 
dc.titleWater saturation shift referencing (WASSR) for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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Author Affiliations
  1. Kennedy Krieger Institute
  2. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine