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Article: Highly pathogenic influenza a(h5n1) virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopes

TitleHighly pathogenic influenza a(h5n1) virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopes
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.action
Citation
Plos One, 2012, v. 7 n. 4 How to Cite?
AbstractBackground: Very little is known regarding the persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in aquatic environments in tropical countries, although environmental materials have been suggested to play a role as reservoirs and sources of transmission for H5N1 viruses. Methodology/Principal Findings: The survival of HPAI H5N1 viruses in experimental aquatic biotopes (water, mud, aquatic flora and fauna) relevant to field conditions in Cambodia was investigated. Artificial aquatic biotopes, including simple ones containing only mud and water, and complex biotopes involving the presence of aquatic flora and fauna, were set up. They were experimentally contaminated with H5N1 virus. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 virus (local avian and human isolates) was determined by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and by real-time reverse-polymerase chain reaction. Persistence of infectious virus did not exceed 4 days, and was only identified in rain water. No infectious virus particles were detected in pond and lake water or mud even when high inoculum doses were used. However, viral RNA persisted up to 20 days in rain water and 7 days in pond or lake water. Viral RNA was also detected in mud samples, up to 14 days post-contamination in several cases. Infectious virus and viral RNA was detected in few cases in the aquatic fauna and flora, especially in bivalves and labyrinth fish, although these organisms seemed to be mostly passive carriers of the virus rather than host allowing virus replication. Conclusions/Significance: Although several factors for the survival and persistence of HPAI viruses in the environment are still to be elucidated, and are particularly hard to control in laboratory conditions, our results, along with previous data, support the idea that environmental surveillance is of major relevance for avian influenza control programs. © 2012 Horm et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/148692
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.057
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.395
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
6th Framework Program grant (Resistance of Influenza Viruses in Environmental Reservoirs and Systems, RIVERS) from the European UnionFP6-2005-SSP-5-B-INFLUENZA
Funding Information:

This work was supported by 6th Framework Program grant FP6-2005-SSP-5-B-INFLUENZA (Resistance of Influenza Viruses in Environmental Reservoirs and Systems, RIVERS) from the European Union. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorHorm, VSen_US
dc.contributor.authorGutiérrez, RAen_US
dc.contributor.authorNicholls, JMen_US
dc.contributor.authorBuchy, Pen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-05-29T06:14:43Z-
dc.date.available2012-05-29T06:14:43Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationPlos One, 2012, v. 7 n. 4en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/148692-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Very little is known regarding the persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in aquatic environments in tropical countries, although environmental materials have been suggested to play a role as reservoirs and sources of transmission for H5N1 viruses. Methodology/Principal Findings: The survival of HPAI H5N1 viruses in experimental aquatic biotopes (water, mud, aquatic flora and fauna) relevant to field conditions in Cambodia was investigated. Artificial aquatic biotopes, including simple ones containing only mud and water, and complex biotopes involving the presence of aquatic flora and fauna, were set up. They were experimentally contaminated with H5N1 virus. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 virus (local avian and human isolates) was determined by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and by real-time reverse-polymerase chain reaction. Persistence of infectious virus did not exceed 4 days, and was only identified in rain water. No infectious virus particles were detected in pond and lake water or mud even when high inoculum doses were used. However, viral RNA persisted up to 20 days in rain water and 7 days in pond or lake water. Viral RNA was also detected in mud samples, up to 14 days post-contamination in several cases. Infectious virus and viral RNA was detected in few cases in the aquatic fauna and flora, especially in bivalves and labyrinth fish, although these organisms seemed to be mostly passive carriers of the virus rather than host allowing virus replication. Conclusions/Significance: Although several factors for the survival and persistence of HPAI viruses in the environment are still to be elucidated, and are particularly hard to control in laboratory conditions, our results, along with previous data, support the idea that environmental surveillance is of major relevance for avian influenza control programs. © 2012 Horm et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.actionen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS ONEen_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.titleHighly pathogenic influenza a(h5n1) virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailNicholls, JM:nicholls@pathology.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityNicholls, JM=rp00364en_US
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0034160en_US
dc.identifier.pmid22514622-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84859722859en_US
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-84859722859&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume7en_US
dc.identifier.issue4en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000305341600027-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US

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