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Article: Long-term outcome of primary non-surgical root canal treatment

TitleLong-term outcome of primary non-surgical root canal treatment
Authors
KeywordsEndodontic treatment
Extraction
Longevity
Periapical healing
Survival analysis
Tooth loss
Issue Date2012
PublisherSpringer Verlag. The Journal's web site is located at http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00784/index.htm
Citation
Clinical Oral Investigations, 2012, v. 16 n. 6, p. 1607-1617 How to Cite?
AbstractAim: The aim of this study is to examine the survival distributions of primary root canal treatment using interval-censored data and to assess the factors affecting the outcome of primary root canal treatment, in terms of periapical healing and tooth survival. Materials and methods: About one tenth of primary root canal treatment performed between January 1981 and December 1994 in a dental teaching hospital were systematically sampled for inclusion in this study. Information about the patients' personal particulars, medical history, pre-operative status, treatment details, and previous review status of the treated teeth, were obtained from dental records. Patients were recalled for examination clinically and radiographically. Treatment outcomes were categorized according to the status for periapical healing and tooth survival. The event time was interval-censored and subjected to survival analysis using the Weibull accelerated failure time model. Results: A total of 889 teeth were suitable for analysis. Survival curves of both outcome measures (periapical healing and tooth survival) declined in a non-linear fashion with time. Median survival of the treated teeth was 119 months (periapical healing) and 252 months (tooth survival). Age, tooth type, pre-operative periapical status, occlusion, type of final restoration, and condition of the tooth/restoration margin were significant factors affecting both periapical healing and tooth survival. Apical extent and homogeneity of root canal fillings had a significant impact towards periapical healing (p < 0.05), but not tooth survival. Conclusion: The longevity of treated teeth based on tooth survival was considerably greater than that of periapical healing. Both outcome measures were affected by a number of socio-demographic, pre-, intra-, and post-operative factors. Clinical relevance: Root canal-treated teeth may continue to function for a considerable period of time even though there may be radiographic periapical lesion present. Decision for extraction may be due to reasons other than a failure of the periapical tissues to heal. © 2011 The Author(s).
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/147135
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.207
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.752
ISI Accession Number ID
References

European Society of Endodontology (2006) Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment: consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology. Int Endod J 39:921–930 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01180.x

Ng Y-L, Mann V, Gulabivala K (2010) Tooth survival following non-surgical root canal treatment: a systematic review of the literature. Int Endod J 43:171–189 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01671.x

Weiger R, Axmann-Krcmar D, Löst C (1998) Prognosis of conventional root canal treatment reconsidered. Endod Dent Traumatol 14:1–9 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1998.tb00801.x

Cheung GSP (2002) Survival of first-time nonsurgical root canal treatment performed in a dental teaching hospital. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:596–604 doi: 10.1067/moe.2002.120254

Davies JA (1987) Dental restoration longevity: a critique of the life table method of analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 15:202–204 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1987.tb00519.x

Sasieni PD (2005) Survival analysis. In: Handbook of epidemiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 693–728 doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-26577-1_18

Lesaffre E, Komárek A, Declerk D (2005) An overview of methods for interval-censored data with an emphasis on application in dentistry. Stat Methods Med Res 14:539–552 doi: 10.1191/0962280205sm417oa

Cheung GSP, Chan TK (2003) Long-term survival of primary root canal treatment carried out in a dental teaching hospital. Int Endod J 36:117–128 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2003.00639.x

Dammaschke T, Steven D, Kaup M, Reiner KH (2003) Long-term survival of root canal treated teeth: a retrospective study over 10 years. J Endod 29:638–643 doi: 10.1097/00004770-200310000-00006

Lindsey JC, Ryan LM (1998) Tutorial in biostatistics. Method for interval-censored data. Stat Med 17:219–238 doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19980130)17:2%3C219::AID-SIM735%3E3.0.CO;2-O

Zhang Z, Sun J (2010) Interval censoring. Stat Methods Med Res 19:53–70 doi: 10.1177/0962280209105023

Molven O, Halse A, Fristad I (2002) Long-term reliability and observer comparisons in the radiographic diagnosis of periapical disease. Int Endod J 35:142–147 doi: 10.1046/j.0143-2885.2001.00525.x

Strindberg LZ (1956) The dependence of the results of pulp therapy on certain factors. An analytical study based on radiographic and clinical follow-up examination. Acta Odontol Scand 14:1–174 doi: 10.3109/00016355609007499

Stoll R, Betke K, Stachniss V (2005) The influence of different factors on the survival of root canal fillings: a 10-year retrospective study. J Endod 31:783–790 doi: 10.1097/01.don.0000158229.43298.a9

Daya S (2005) Life table (survival) analysis to generate cumulative pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction: are we overestimating our success rates? Hum Reprod 20:1135–1143 doi: 10.1093/humrep/deh889

Huumonen S, Ørstavik D (2002) Radiological aspects of apical periodontitis. Endod Top 1:3–25 doi: 10.1034/j.1601-1546.2002.10102.x

Lee S-J, Messer HH (1986) Radiographic appearance of artificially prepared periapical lesions confined to cancellous bone. Int Endod J 19:64–72 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1986.tb00894.x

Barbat J, Messer HH (1998) Detectability of artificial periapical lesions using direct digital and conventional radiography. J Endod 24:837–842 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(98)80014-9

Garcia de Paula-Silva FM, Wu M-K, Leornado MR, Bezerra da Silva LA, Wesselink PR (2009) Accuracy of periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography scans in diagnosing apical periodontitis using histopathological findings as a gold standard. J Endod 35:1009–1012 doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2009.04.006

Salehrabi R, Rotstein I (2004) Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population in the USA: an epidemiological study. J Endod 30:846–850 doi: 10.1097/01.don.0000145031.04236.ca

Lazarski MP, Walker WA, Flores CM, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM (2001) Epidemiological evaluation of the outcomes of non-surgical root canal treatment in a large cohort of insured dental patients. J Endod 27:791–796 doi: 10.1097/00004770-200112000-00021

Chen S-C, Chueh L-H, Hsiao CK, Tsai M-Y, Ho S-C, Chiang C-P (2007) An epidemiology study of tooth retention after nonsurgical endodontic treatment in a large population in Taiwan. J Endod 33:226–229 doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2006.11.022

Kerekes K, Tronstad L (1979) Long-term results of endodontic treatment performed with a standardized technique. J Endod 5:83–90 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(79)80154-5

Hoskinson SE, Ng Y-L, Hoskinson AE, Moles DR, Gulabivala K (2002) A retrospective comparison of outcome of root canal treatment using two different protocols. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:705–715 doi: 10.1067/moe.2001.122822

de Chevigny C, Dao TT, Basrani BR, Marquis V, Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Friedman S (2008) Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto study. Phase 4: initial treatment. J Endod 34:258–263 doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2007.10.017

Ørstavik D, Qvist V, Stoltze K (2004) A multivariate analysis of the outcome of endodontic treatment. Eur J Oral Sci 112:224–230 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2004.00122.x

Caplan DJ, Weintraub JA (1997) Factors related to loss of root canal filled teeth. J Public Health Dent 57:31–39 doi: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.1997.tb02470.x

Mindiola MJ, Mickel AK, Sami C, Jones JJ, Lalumandier JA, Nelson SS (2006) Endodontic treatment in an American Indian population: a 10-year retrospective study. J Endod 32:828–832 doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2006.03.007

Ng Y-L, Mann V, Rahbaran S, Lewsey J, Gulabivala K (2008) Outcome of primary root canal treatment: systematic review of the literature. Part 2: influence of clinical factors. Int Endod J 41:6–31 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01484.x

Aquilino SA, Caplan DJ (2002) Relationship between crown placement and the survival of endodontically treated teeth. J Prosthet Dent 87:256–263 doi: 10.1067/mpr.2002.122014

Nair PNR (1987) Light and electron microscopic studies of root canal flora and periapical lesions. J Endod 13(1):29–39 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80089-4

Sjögren U, Hägglund B, Sundqvist G, Wing K (1990) Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment. J Endod 16:498–504 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80180-4

Eckerbom M, Magnusson T, Martinsson T (1992) Reasons for and incidence of tooth mortality in a Swedish population. Endod Dent Traumatol 8:230–234 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1992.tb00249.x

Matsumoto T, Nagai T, Ida K, Kawai Y, Horiba N, Sato R, Nakamura H (1987) Factors affecting successful prognosis of root canal treatment. J Endod 13:239–242 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80098-5

Meeuwissen R, Eschen S (1983) Twenty years of endodontic treatment. J Endod 9:390–393 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(83)80192-7

Vire DE (1991) Failure of endodontically treated teeth: classification and evaluation. J Endod 17:338–342 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(06)81702-4

Caplan DJ, Kolker J, Rivera EM, Walton RE (2002) Relationship between number of proximal contacts and survival of root canal treated teeth. Int Endod J 35:193–199 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00472.x

Stavropoulou AF, Koidis PT (2007) A systematic review of single crowns on endodontically treated teeth. J Dent 35:761–767 doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2007.07.004

Saunders WP, Saunders EM (1994) Coronal leakage as a cause of failure in root canal therapy. A review. Endod Dent Traumatol 10:105–108 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1994.tb00533.x

Madison S, Wilcox LR (1988) An evaluation of coronal microleakage in endodontically treated teeth. Part III. In vivo study. J Endod 14:455–458 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(88)80135-3

Torabinejad M, Ung B, Kettering JD (1990) In vitro bacterial penetration of coronally unsealed endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 16:566–569 doi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80198-1

Hommez GMG, Coppene CRM, De Moor RJG (2002) Periapical health related to the quality of coronal restorations and root fillings. Int Endod J 35:680–689 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00546.x

Sjögren U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqvist G (1997) Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int Endod J 30:297–306 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1997.tb00714.x

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLee, AHCen_HK
dc.contributor.authorCheung, GSPen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWong, MCMen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2012-05-28T08:20:34Z-
dc.date.available2012-05-28T08:20:34Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_HK
dc.identifier.citationClinical Oral Investigations, 2012, v. 16 n. 6, p. 1607-1617en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1432-6981en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/147135-
dc.description.abstractAim: The aim of this study is to examine the survival distributions of primary root canal treatment using interval-censored data and to assess the factors affecting the outcome of primary root canal treatment, in terms of periapical healing and tooth survival. Materials and methods: About one tenth of primary root canal treatment performed between January 1981 and December 1994 in a dental teaching hospital were systematically sampled for inclusion in this study. Information about the patients' personal particulars, medical history, pre-operative status, treatment details, and previous review status of the treated teeth, were obtained from dental records. Patients were recalled for examination clinically and radiographically. Treatment outcomes were categorized according to the status for periapical healing and tooth survival. The event time was interval-censored and subjected to survival analysis using the Weibull accelerated failure time model. Results: A total of 889 teeth were suitable for analysis. Survival curves of both outcome measures (periapical healing and tooth survival) declined in a non-linear fashion with time. Median survival of the treated teeth was 119 months (periapical healing) and 252 months (tooth survival). Age, tooth type, pre-operative periapical status, occlusion, type of final restoration, and condition of the tooth/restoration margin were significant factors affecting both periapical healing and tooth survival. Apical extent and homogeneity of root canal fillings had a significant impact towards periapical healing (p < 0.05), but not tooth survival. Conclusion: The longevity of treated teeth based on tooth survival was considerably greater than that of periapical healing. Both outcome measures were affected by a number of socio-demographic, pre-, intra-, and post-operative factors. Clinical relevance: Root canal-treated teeth may continue to function for a considerable period of time even though there may be radiographic periapical lesion present. Decision for extraction may be due to reasons other than a failure of the periapical tissues to heal. © 2011 The Author(s).en_HK
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Verlag. The Journal's web site is located at http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00784/index.htmen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofClinical Oral Investigationsen_HK
dc.rightsThe Author(s)en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong Licenseen_US
dc.subjectEndodontic treatmenten_HK
dc.subjectExtractionen_HK
dc.subjectLongevityen_HK
dc.subjectPeriapical healingen_HK
dc.subjectSurvival analysisen_HK
dc.subjectTooth lossen_HK
dc.titleLong-term outcome of primary non-surgical root canal treatmenten_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://www.springerlink.com/link-out/?id=2104&code=M28648304718P447&MUD=MPen_US
dc.identifier.emailCheung, GSP:spcheung@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityCheung, GSP=rp00016en_HK
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00784-011-0664-2en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid22205268-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84869499933en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros211570-
dc.identifier.hkuros219317-
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dc.relation.referencesNg Y-L, Mann V, Gulabivala K (2010) Tooth survival following non-surgical root canal treatment: a systematic review of the literature. Int Endod J 43:171–189en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2009.01671.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesWeiger R, Axmann-Krcmar D, Löst C (1998) Prognosis of conventional root canal treatment reconsidered. Endod Dent Traumatol 14:1–9en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1998.tb00801.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesCheung GSP (2002) Survival of first-time nonsurgical root canal treatment performed in a dental teaching hospital. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:596–604en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1067/moe.2002.120254en_US
dc.relation.referencesDavies JA (1987) Dental restoration longevity: a critique of the life table method of analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 15:202–204en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1987.tb00519.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesSasieni PD (2005) Survival analysis. In: Handbook of epidemiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 693–728en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1007/978-3-540-26577-1_18en_US
dc.relation.referencesLesaffre E, Komárek A, Declerk D (2005) An overview of methods for interval-censored data with an emphasis on application in dentistry. Stat Methods Med Res 14:539–552en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1191/0962280205sm417oaen_US
dc.relation.referencesCheung GSP, Chan TK (2003) Long-term survival of primary root canal treatment carried out in a dental teaching hospital. Int Endod J 36:117–128en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2003.00639.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesDammaschke T, Steven D, Kaup M, Reiner KH (2003) Long-term survival of root canal treated teeth: a retrospective study over 10 years. J Endod 29:638–643en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1097/00004770-200310000-00006en_US
dc.relation.referencesLindsey JC, Ryan LM (1998) Tutorial in biostatistics. Method for interval-censored data. Stat Med 17:219–238en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19980130)17:2%3C219::AID-SIM735%3E3.0.CO;2-Oen_US
dc.relation.referencesZhang Z, Sun J (2010) Interval censoring. Stat Methods Med Res 19:53–70en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1177/0962280209105023en_US
dc.relation.referencesMolven O, Halse A, Fristad I (2002) Long-term reliability and observer comparisons in the radiographic diagnosis of periapical disease. Int Endod J 35:142–147en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1046/j.0143-2885.2001.00525.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesStrindberg LZ (1956) The dependence of the results of pulp therapy on certain factors. An analytical study based on radiographic and clinical follow-up examination. Acta Odontol Scand 14:1–174en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.3109/00016355609007499en_US
dc.relation.referencesStoll R, Betke K, Stachniss V (2005) The influence of different factors on the survival of root canal fillings: a 10-year retrospective study. J Endod 31:783–790en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1097/01.don.0000158229.43298.a9en_US
dc.relation.referencesDaya S (2005) Life table (survival) analysis to generate cumulative pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction: are we overestimating our success rates? Hum Reprod 20:1135–1143en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1093/humrep/deh889en_US
dc.relation.referencesHuumonen S, Ørstavik D (2002) Radiological aspects of apical periodontitis. Endod Top 1:3–25en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1034/j.1601-1546.2002.10102.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesLee S-J, Messer HH (1986) Radiographic appearance of artificially prepared periapical lesions confined to cancellous bone. Int Endod J 19:64–72en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1986.tb00894.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesBarbat J, Messer HH (1998) Detectability of artificial periapical lesions using direct digital and conventional radiography. J Endod 24:837–842en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(98)80014-9en_US
dc.relation.referencesGarcia de Paula-Silva FM, Wu M-K, Leornado MR, Bezerra da Silva LA, Wesselink PR (2009) Accuracy of periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography scans in diagnosing apical periodontitis using histopathological findings as a gold standard. J Endod 35:1009–1012en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.joen.2009.04.006en_US
dc.relation.referencesSalehrabi R, Rotstein I (2004) Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population in the USA: an epidemiological study. J Endod 30:846–850en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1097/01.don.0000145031.04236.caen_US
dc.relation.referencesLazarski MP, Walker WA, Flores CM, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM (2001) Epidemiological evaluation of the outcomes of non-surgical root canal treatment in a large cohort of insured dental patients. J Endod 27:791–796en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1097/00004770-200112000-00021en_US
dc.relation.referencesChen S-C, Chueh L-H, Hsiao CK, Tsai M-Y, Ho S-C, Chiang C-P (2007) An epidemiology study of tooth retention after nonsurgical endodontic treatment in a large population in Taiwan. J Endod 33:226–229en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.joen.2006.11.022en_US
dc.relation.referencesKerekes K, Tronstad L (1979) Long-term results of endodontic treatment performed with a standardized technique. J Endod 5:83–90en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(79)80154-5en_US
dc.relation.referencesHoskinson SE, Ng Y-L, Hoskinson AE, Moles DR, Gulabivala K (2002) A retrospective comparison of outcome of root canal treatment using two different protocols. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 93:705–715en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1067/moe.2001.122822en_US
dc.relation.referencesde Chevigny C, Dao TT, Basrani BR, Marquis V, Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Friedman S (2008) Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto study. Phase 4: initial treatment. J Endod 34:258–263en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.joen.2007.10.017en_US
dc.relation.referencesØrstavik D, Qvist V, Stoltze K (2004) A multivariate analysis of the outcome of endodontic treatment. Eur J Oral Sci 112:224–230en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2004.00122.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesCaplan DJ, Weintraub JA (1997) Factors related to loss of root canal filled teeth. J Public Health Dent 57:31–39en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.1997.tb02470.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesMindiola MJ, Mickel AK, Sami C, Jones JJ, Lalumandier JA, Nelson SS (2006) Endodontic treatment in an American Indian population: a 10-year retrospective study. J Endod 32:828–832en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.joen.2006.03.007en_US
dc.relation.referencesNg Y-L, Mann V, Rahbaran S, Lewsey J, Gulabivala K (2008) Outcome of primary root canal treatment: systematic review of the literature. Part 2: influence of clinical factors. Int Endod J 41:6–31en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01484.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesAquilino SA, Caplan DJ (2002) Relationship between crown placement and the survival of endodontically treated teeth. J Prosthet Dent 87:256–263en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1067/mpr.2002.122014en_US
dc.relation.referencesNair PNR (1987) Light and electron microscopic studies of root canal flora and periapical lesions. J Endod 13(1):29–39en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80089-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesSjögren U, Hägglund B, Sundqvist G, Wing K (1990) Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment. J Endod 16:498–504en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80180-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesEckerbom M, Magnusson T, Martinsson T (1992) Reasons for and incidence of tooth mortality in a Swedish population. Endod Dent Traumatol 8:230–234en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1992.tb00249.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesMatsumoto T, Nagai T, Ida K, Kawai Y, Horiba N, Sato R, Nakamura H (1987) Factors affecting successful prognosis of root canal treatment. J Endod 13:239–242en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80098-5en_US
dc.relation.referencesMeeuwissen R, Eschen S (1983) Twenty years of endodontic treatment. J Endod 9:390–393en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(83)80192-7en_US
dc.relation.referencesVire DE (1991) Failure of endodontically treated teeth: classification and evaluation. J Endod 17:338–342en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(06)81702-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesCaplan DJ, Kolker J, Rivera EM, Walton RE (2002) Relationship between number of proximal contacts and survival of root canal treated teeth. Int Endod J 35:193–199en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00472.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesStavropoulou AF, Koidis PT (2007) A systematic review of single crowns on endodontically treated teeth. J Dent 35:761–767en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2007.07.004en_US
dc.relation.referencesSaunders WP, Saunders EM (1994) Coronal leakage as a cause of failure in root canal therapy. A review. Endod Dent Traumatol 10:105–108en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.1994.tb00533.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesMadison S, Wilcox LR (1988) An evaluation of coronal microleakage in endodontically treated teeth. Part III. In vivo study. J Endod 14:455–458en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(88)80135-3en_US
dc.relation.referencesTorabinejad M, Ung B, Kettering JD (1990) In vitro bacterial penetration of coronally unsealed endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 16:566–569en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80198-1en_US
dc.relation.referencesHommez GMG, Coppene CRM, De Moor RJG (2002) Periapical health related to the quality of coronal restorations and root fillings. Int Endod J 35:680–689en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.2002.00546.xen_US
dc.relation.referencesSjögren U, Figdor D, Persson S, Sundqvist G (1997) Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Int Endod J 30:297–306en_US
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dc.identifier.spage1607en_HK
dc.identifier.epage1617en_HK
dc.identifier.eissn1436-3771en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000311362300013-
dc.publisher.placeGermanyen_HK
dc.description.otherSpringer Open Choice, 28 May 2012en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLee, AHC=18437116300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridCheung, GSP=7005809531en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWong, MCM=54880797100en_HK
dc.identifier.citeulike10196662-

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