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postgraduate thesis: Measurement of cosmic-ray muon induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnelunderground laboratory in Hong Kong

TitleMeasurement of cosmic-ray muon induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnelunderground laboratory in Hong Kong
Authors
Advisors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
AbstractThe Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment aims to determine sin2 2θ13 with a sensitivity of 0.01 or better at 90% confidence level. One of the major backgrounds to neutrino measurements is the muon-induced neutrons. An ex- periment had been set up inside the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory, Hong Kong, to study spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in an underground environment similar to the Daya Bay experiment. The Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory is 22 m above sea level at 22:23?N and 114:6?E. The amount of overburden is approximately 235 m of rocks, which is equivalent to 611 m.w.e. Rock compositions in the Aberdeen Tunnel area is similar to that in Daya Bay. MUSIC simulation results showed that in the laboratory the mean energy of muons 〈Eμ〉= 122 GeV and the integrated muon intensity I = 9:64 X10??6 cm??2 s??1. A Bonner Spheres Neutron Spectrometer (BSS) was developed to measure the ambient neutron energy spectrum. The BSS consists of a thermal neutron detector and a set of eight polyethylene spherical shells. The overall detection efficiency of the BSS was (96:7 +3:3 ??13:1)% with a detector background rate of (1:96_0:03)_10??3 s??1. The total neutron fluence rate measured at the Surface Assembly Building (SAB) of the Daya Bay experiment was (5:20 +0:81 ??0:44) _ 10??3 cm??2 s??1, which agreed with the neutron fluence rate measured in the air/ground interface in Taiwan. The unfolded SAB neutron energy spectrum showed a clear thermal-neutron peak around 20 meV and a cascade peak around 100 MeV. Detectable number of neutrons could be seen at 1 GeV. The neutron fluence rate measured at the Aberdeen Tunnel (ABT) laboratory was significantly higher then some other underground laboratories. The unfolded ABT neutron energy spectrum showed a pronounced evaporation peak around 1 MeV, and a sup- pression in the cascade peak. Detections of muon-induced neutrons inside the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory is achieved by a Muon Tracker and a Neutron Detector. The Muon Tracker consists of three main layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes capable of determining the incoming direction of muons. The average efficiency for most of the hodoscopes was above 95%. The Neutron Detector consists of about 760 L of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator and sixteen photomultiplier tubes. The liquid scintillator target is shield by about 1900 L of mineral oil from external radiations. The overall average detection efficiency of muon-induced neutrons was about 16%. The measurement of muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel lab- oratory started from June 2011, with a total live time of about 30 days. The average rate of the accepted muon events was 0.013 Hz. The muon-induced neutron yield was determined to be Nn = (8:5 _ 0:4(syst.) _ 1:8(stat.)) _ 10??5 neutron/(μg cm??2). This value agreed with the parametrization of FLUKA-1999 simulation results if the muon energy dependence of muon-induced neutron yields was considered.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectNeutrons - Measurement.
Cosmic ray muons - China - Hong Kong.
Dept/ProgramPhysics

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorPun, JCS-
dc.contributor.advisorLeung, JKC-
dc.contributor.authorNgai, Ho-yin.-
dc.contributor.author倪浩然.-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.description.abstractThe Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment aims to determine sin2 2θ13 with a sensitivity of 0.01 or better at 90% confidence level. One of the major backgrounds to neutrino measurements is the muon-induced neutrons. An ex- periment had been set up inside the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory, Hong Kong, to study spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in an underground environment similar to the Daya Bay experiment. The Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory is 22 m above sea level at 22:23?N and 114:6?E. The amount of overburden is approximately 235 m of rocks, which is equivalent to 611 m.w.e. Rock compositions in the Aberdeen Tunnel area is similar to that in Daya Bay. MUSIC simulation results showed that in the laboratory the mean energy of muons 〈Eμ〉= 122 GeV and the integrated muon intensity I = 9:64 X10??6 cm??2 s??1. A Bonner Spheres Neutron Spectrometer (BSS) was developed to measure the ambient neutron energy spectrum. The BSS consists of a thermal neutron detector and a set of eight polyethylene spherical shells. The overall detection efficiency of the BSS was (96:7 +3:3 ??13:1)% with a detector background rate of (1:96_0:03)_10??3 s??1. The total neutron fluence rate measured at the Surface Assembly Building (SAB) of the Daya Bay experiment was (5:20 +0:81 ??0:44) _ 10??3 cm??2 s??1, which agreed with the neutron fluence rate measured in the air/ground interface in Taiwan. The unfolded SAB neutron energy spectrum showed a clear thermal-neutron peak around 20 meV and a cascade peak around 100 MeV. Detectable number of neutrons could be seen at 1 GeV. The neutron fluence rate measured at the Aberdeen Tunnel (ABT) laboratory was significantly higher then some other underground laboratories. The unfolded ABT neutron energy spectrum showed a pronounced evaporation peak around 1 MeV, and a sup- pression in the cascade peak. Detections of muon-induced neutrons inside the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory is achieved by a Muon Tracker and a Neutron Detector. The Muon Tracker consists of three main layers of crossed plastic scintillator hodoscopes capable of determining the incoming direction of muons. The average efficiency for most of the hodoscopes was above 95%. The Neutron Detector consists of about 760 L of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator and sixteen photomultiplier tubes. The liquid scintillator target is shield by about 1900 L of mineral oil from external radiations. The overall average detection efficiency of muon-induced neutrons was about 16%. The measurement of muon-induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel lab- oratory started from June 2011, with a total live time of about 30 days. The average rate of the accepted muon events was 0.013 Hz. The muon-induced neutron yield was determined to be Nn = (8:5 _ 0:4(syst.) _ 1:8(stat.)) _ 10??5 neutron/(μg cm??2). This value agreed with the parametrization of FLUKA-1999 simulation results if the muon energy dependence of muon-induced neutron yields was considered.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47249250-
dc.subject.lcshNeutrons - Measurement.-
dc.subject.lcshCosmic ray muons - China - Hong Kong.-
dc.titleMeasurement of cosmic-ray muon induced neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnelunderground laboratory in Hong Kong-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4724925-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysics-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4724925-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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