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postgraduate thesis: The role of platelet-derived molecules: PDGF and serotonin in the regulation of megakaryopoiesis

TitleThe role of platelet-derived molecules: PDGF and serotonin in the regulation of megakaryopoiesis
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Chan, GCF
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Abstract
Investigations on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and serotonin (5-HT), molecules stored in platelet granules, imply their potential effects in regulating megakaryopoiesis, which also intimates the existence of an autocrine and/or paracrine loop constructed by megakaryocytes/platelets and their granular constituents. In addition, numerous reports indicate that melatonin, a derivative from serotonin effectively enhances platelet counts in patients with thrombocytopenia. However, their exact roles on human megakaryocytes and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Present studies showed that PDGF, like thrombopoietin (TPO), significantly promoted platelet recovery and the formation of bone marrow colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) in an irradiated-mouse model. An increased number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and a reduction of apoptosis were found in the bone marrow aspirate. In the M-07e apoptotic model, PDGF had a similar anti-apoptotic effect as TPO on megakaryocytes. Our findings demonstrated that PDGF activated the PI3-k/Akt signaling pathway, while addition of imatinib mesylate reduced p-Akt expression. Our findings suggested that the PDGF-initiated radioprotective effect is likely to be mediated via PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) with subsequent activation of the PI3-k/Akt pathway. We also provide a possible explanation that blockade of PDGFR may reduce thrombopoiesis and play a role in imatinib mesylate-induced thrombocytopenia. We explored how serotonin regulated megakaryopoiesis and proplatelet formation. Our results indicated that serotonin (5-HT) significantly promoted CFU-MK formation and reduced apoptosis on megakaryocytes through phosphorylation of Akt. These effects were attenuated by addition of ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor inhibitor. In addition, serotonin was able to stimulate the F-actin reorganization in megakaryocytes through activating the p-Erk1/2 expression. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are important in regulating megakaryopoiesis through stimulating the release of thrombopoietic growth factor, such as TPO. Our studies suggested that when activated by serotonin, bone marrow MSCs were induced to release significant amount of TPO. Furthermore, thousands of membrane-derived microparticles (MPs) arose from MSCs and the TPO RNA/proteins contained within MPs were also considerably increased under serotonin treatment. In summary, our findings demonstrated an important role serotonin played on megakaryopoiesis. This effect was likely mediated via 5HT2 receptors with subsequent activation of Akt and Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, which led to survival of megakaryocytes and proplatelet formation. Serotonin also stimulated TPO released from MSCs in both dissociative and MP-encapsulated form, which indirectly promoted megakaryopoiesis. The effects of melatonin on megakaryopoiesis were also determined in our studies. Our findings showed that melatonin enhanced proliferation and reduced doxorubicin-induced toxicity on MKs. We further demonstrated the mechanism for melatonin-mediated protection on MKs maybe via repair of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell apoptosis on MK cells. The effects of melatonin on megakaryopoiesis were also determined in our studies. Our findings showed that melatonin enhanced proliferation and reduced doxorubicin-induced toxicity on MKs. We further demonstrated the mechanism for melatonin-mediated protection on MKs maybe via repair of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell apoptosis on MK cells.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectMegakaryocytes.
Platelet-derived growth factor.
Serotonin.
Dept/ProgramPaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorChan, GCF-
dc.contributor.authorYe, Jieyu.-
dc.contributor.author叶洁瑜.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.description.abstractInvestigations on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and serotonin (5-HT), molecules stored in platelet granules, imply their potential effects in regulating megakaryopoiesis, which also intimates the existence of an autocrine and/or paracrine loop constructed by megakaryocytes/platelets and their granular constituents. In addition, numerous reports indicate that melatonin, a derivative from serotonin effectively enhances platelet counts in patients with thrombocytopenia. However, their exact roles on human megakaryocytes and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Present studies showed that PDGF, like thrombopoietin (TPO), significantly promoted platelet recovery and the formation of bone marrow colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK) in an irradiated-mouse model. An increased number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and a reduction of apoptosis were found in the bone marrow aspirate. In the M-07e apoptotic model, PDGF had a similar anti-apoptotic effect as TPO on megakaryocytes. Our findings demonstrated that PDGF activated the PI3-k/Akt signaling pathway, while addition of imatinib mesylate reduced p-Akt expression. Our findings suggested that the PDGF-initiated radioprotective effect is likely to be mediated via PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) with subsequent activation of the PI3-k/Akt pathway. We also provide a possible explanation that blockade of PDGFR may reduce thrombopoiesis and play a role in imatinib mesylate-induced thrombocytopenia. We explored how serotonin regulated megakaryopoiesis and proplatelet formation. Our results indicated that serotonin (5-HT) significantly promoted CFU-MK formation and reduced apoptosis on megakaryocytes through phosphorylation of Akt. These effects were attenuated by addition of ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor inhibitor. In addition, serotonin was able to stimulate the F-actin reorganization in megakaryocytes through activating the p-Erk1/2 expression. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are important in regulating megakaryopoiesis through stimulating the release of thrombopoietic growth factor, such as TPO. Our studies suggested that when activated by serotonin, bone marrow MSCs were induced to release significant amount of TPO. Furthermore, thousands of membrane-derived microparticles (MPs) arose from MSCs and the TPO RNA/proteins contained within MPs were also considerably increased under serotonin treatment. In summary, our findings demonstrated an important role serotonin played on megakaryopoiesis. This effect was likely mediated via 5HT2 receptors with subsequent activation of Akt and Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, which led to survival of megakaryocytes and proplatelet formation. Serotonin also stimulated TPO released from MSCs in both dissociative and MP-encapsulated form, which indirectly promoted megakaryopoiesis. The effects of melatonin on megakaryopoiesis were also determined in our studies. Our findings showed that melatonin enhanced proliferation and reduced doxorubicin-induced toxicity on MKs. We further demonstrated the mechanism for melatonin-mediated protection on MKs maybe via repair of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell apoptosis on MK cells. The effects of melatonin on megakaryopoiesis were also determined in our studies. Our findings showed that melatonin enhanced proliferation and reduced doxorubicin-induced toxicity on MKs. We further demonstrated the mechanism for melatonin-mediated protection on MKs maybe via repair of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell apoptosis on MK cells.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47244446-
dc.subject.lcshMegakaryocytes.-
dc.subject.lcshPlatelet-derived growth factor.-
dc.subject.lcshSerotonin.-
dc.titleThe role of platelet-derived molecules: PDGF and serotonin in the regulation of megakaryopoiesis-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4724444-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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