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Article: Assessment of Dietary Restraint: Psychometric Properties of the Revised Restraint Scale in Hong Kong Adolescents

TitleAssessment of Dietary Restraint: Psychometric Properties of the Revised Restraint Scale in Hong Kong Adolescents
Authors
KeywordsPsychology
Health Psychology
Public Health, general
Stress and Coping
Primary Care Medicine
General Practice and Family Medicine
Cross Cultural Psychology
Issue Date2011
PublisherSpringer Boston
Citation
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2011, p. 1-9 How to Cite?
AbstractBackground: The psychometric properties of the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) have been well established in western populations but not in Chinese adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of RRS and its validity in different subgroups for Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Method: In 2007, 909 Hong Kong students aged 12 to 18 years (55.3% boys) completed a questionnaire including demographic items, RRS, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES)-physical. Moreover, subjects' height and weight were measured. To examine the factor structure of RRS, the whole sample was randomly split into two groups (sample 1: N=454 and sample 2: N=455) for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity of RRS were investigated by correlating the RRS with EAT-26 and MFES-physical. Multigroup CFA was conducted to test the three-factor model of RRS in different sex, age, and weight status subgroups. Results: Results of EFA for sample 1 revealed three strongly correlated factors for the RRS construct, and were supported by the CFA results in sample 2. Multigroup CFA further suggested that the three-factor model of RRS was stable across sex, age, and weight status subgroups. Conclusions: A new three-factor model is proposed for Hong Kong adolescents in this study. In general, RRS is a reliable and valid measure of restrained eating for adolescents, regardless of sex, age, and weight status. © 2011 The Author(s).
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/144914
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 1.872
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.905
ISI Accession Number ID
References

Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA. 2004;291:2847–50. doi: 10.1001/jama.291.23.2847

Skelton JA, Cook SR, Auinger P, Klein JD, Barlow SE. Prevalence and trends of severe obesity among US children and adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9:322–9. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2009.04.005

Nisbett RE. Hunger, obesity, and the ventromedial hypothalamus. Psychol Rev. 1972;79:433–53. doi: 10.1037/h0033519

Herman CP, Mack D. Restrained and unrestrained eating. J Pers. 1975;43:647–60. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00727.x

Blanchard FA, Frost RO. Two factors of restraint: concern for dieting and weight fluctuation. Behav Res Ther. 1983;21:259–67. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(83)90208-5

Ruderman AJ. The restraint scale: a psychometric investigation. Behav Res Ther. 1983;21:253–8. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(83)90207-3

Stice E, Ozer S, Kees M. Relation of dietary restraint to bulimic symptomatology: the effects of the criterion confounding of the Restraint Scale. Behav Res Ther. 1997;35:145–52. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00077-0

van Strien T, Herman CP, Engels RC, Larsen JK, van Leeuwe JF. Construct validation of the restraint scale in normal-weight and overweight females. Appetite. 2007;49:109–21. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.01.003

Williamson DA, Martin CK, York-Crowe E, Anton SD, Redman LM, Han H, et al. Measurement of dietary restraint: validity tests of four questionnaires. Appetite. 2007;48:183–92. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.08.066

Lowe MR. Dietary concern, weight fluctuation and weight status: further explorations of the restraint scale. Behav Res Ther. 1984;22:243–8. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(84)90004-4

Johnson WG, Lake L, Mahan JM. Restrained eating: measuring an elusive construct. Addict Behav. 1983;8:413–8. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(83)90042-4

Klem ML, Klesges RC, Bene CR, Mellon MW. A psychometric study of restraint: the impact of race, gender, weight and marital status. Addict Behav. 1990;15:147–52. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(90)90018-S

Ruderman AJ, Christensen H. Restraint theory and its applicability to overweight individuals. J Abnorm Psychology. 1983;92:210–5. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.92.2.210

Lee S, Lee AM. Disordered eating in three communities of China: a comparative study of female high school students in hong kong, Shenzhen, and rural hunan. Int J Eat Disord. 2000;27:317–27. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200004)27:3%3C317::AID-EAT9%3E3.0.CO;2-2

Davis C, Katzman MA. Chinese men and women in the United States and Hong Kong: body and self-esteem ratings as a prelude to dieting and exercise. Int J Eat Disord. 1998;23:99–102. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199801)23:1%3C99::AID-EAT13%3E3.0.CO;2-I

Leung SF, Lee KL, Lee SM, Leung SC, Hung WS, Lee WL, et al. Psychometric properties of the SCOFF questionnaire (Chinese version) for screening eating disorders in Hong Kong secondary school students: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:239–47. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.09.004

Tam CK, Ng CF, Yu CM, Young BW. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours among adolescents in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates. J Paediatr Child Health. 2007;43:811–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2007.01195.x

Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D. Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: a 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol. 2002;21:131–8. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.21.2.131

Stice E, Killen JD, Hayward C, Taylor CB. Age of onset for binge eating and purging during late adolescence: a 4-year survival analysis. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998;107:671–5. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.107.4.671

Killen JD, Taylor CB, Hayward C, Wilson DM, Haydel KF, Hammer LD, et al. Pursuit of thinness and onset of eating disorder symptoms in a community sample of adolescent girls: a three-year prospective analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 1994;16:227–38. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199411)16:3%3C227::AID-EAT2260160303%3E3.0.CO;2-L

Patton GC, Johnson-Sabine E, Wood K, Mann AH, Wakeling A. Abnormal eating attitudes in London schoolgirls–a prospective epidemiological study: outcome at twelve month follow-up. Psychol Med. 1990;20:383–94. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700017700

Santonastaso P, Friederici S, Favaro A. Full and partial syndromes in eating disorders: a 1-year prospective study of risk factors among female students. Psychopathology. 1999;32:50–6. doi: 10.1159/000029067

Stice E, Hayward C, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Taylor CB. Body-image and eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: a longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2000;109:438–44. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.438

Stice E, Bearman SK. Body-image and eating disturbances prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms in adolescent girls: a growth curve analysis. Dev Psychol. 2001;37:597–607. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.5.597

Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Bohr Y, Garfinkel PE. The eating attitudes test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychol Med. 1982;12:871–8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700049163

Lee S, Kwok K, Liau C, Leung T. Screening Chinese patients with eating disorders using the eating attitudes test in Hong Kong. Int J Eat Disord. 2002;32:91–7. doi: 10.1002/eat.10064

Hawks SR, Merrill C, Julie G, Hawks J. Validation of the motivation for eating scale. Ecol Food Nutr. 2004;43:307–26. doi: 10.1080/03670240490454714

Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320:1240–6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240

Satorra A, Bentler PM. A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika. 2001;66:507–14. doi: 10.1007/BF02296192

Bentler PM. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychol Bull. 1990;107:238–46. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Bentler PM, Bonett DG. Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol Bull. 1980;88:588–606. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

Steiger JH. Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estaimation approach. Multivar Behav Res Ther. 1990;25:173–80. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr2502_4

Gregorich SE. Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Med Care. 2006;44:S78–94. doi: 10.1097/01.mlr.0000245454.12228.8f

Overduin J, Jansen A. A new scale for use in non-clinical research into disinhibitive eating. Pers Indiv Differ. 1996;20:669–77. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(96)00010-4

van Strien T, Breteler MH, Ouwens MA. Restraint scale, its sub-scales concern for dieting and weight fluctuation. Pers Indiv Differ. 2002;33:791–802. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00192-1

Laessle RG, Tuschl RJ, Kotthaus BC, Pirke KM. A comparison of the validity of three scales for the assessment of dietary restraint. J Abnorm Psychol. 1989;98:504–7. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.98.4.504

Heatherton TF, Herman CP, Polivy J, King GA, McGree ST. The (mis)measurement of restraint: an analysis of conceptual and psychometric issues. J Abnorm Psychol. 1988;97:19–28. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.97.1.19

Allison DB, Kalinsky LB, Gorman BS. A comparison of the psychometric properties of three measures of dietary restraint. Psychol Assess. 1992;4:391–8. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.4.3.391

Ogden J, Ogden J. The measurement of restraint: confounding success and failure? Int J Eat Disord. 1993;13:69–76. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199301)13:1%3C69::AID-EAT2260130109%3E3.0.CO;2-Z

Rodin J. Current status of the internal-external hypothesis for obesity: what went wrong? Am Psychol. 1981;36:361–72. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.36.4.361

Sherry B, Jefferds ME, Grummer-Strawn LM. Accuracy of adolescent self-report of height and weight in assessing overweight status: a literature review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:1154–61. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.161.12.1154

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorMak, KKen_US
dc.contributor.authorLai, CM-
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-21T05:42:26Z-
dc.date.available2012-02-21T05:42:26Z-
dc.date.issued2011en_US
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2011, p. 1-9en_US
dc.identifier.issn1070-5503en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/144914-
dc.description.abstractBackground: The psychometric properties of the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) have been well established in western populations but not in Chinese adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of RRS and its validity in different subgroups for Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Method: In 2007, 909 Hong Kong students aged 12 to 18 years (55.3% boys) completed a questionnaire including demographic items, RRS, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES)-physical. Moreover, subjects' height and weight were measured. To examine the factor structure of RRS, the whole sample was randomly split into two groups (sample 1: N=454 and sample 2: N=455) for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity of RRS were investigated by correlating the RRS with EAT-26 and MFES-physical. Multigroup CFA was conducted to test the three-factor model of RRS in different sex, age, and weight status subgroups. Results: Results of EFA for sample 1 revealed three strongly correlated factors for the RRS construct, and were supported by the CFA results in sample 2. Multigroup CFA further suggested that the three-factor model of RRS was stable across sex, age, and weight status subgroups. Conclusions: A new three-factor model is proposed for Hong Kong adolescents in this study. In general, RRS is a reliable and valid measure of restrained eating for adolescents, regardless of sex, age, and weight status. © 2011 The Author(s).en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Bostonen_US
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicineen_US
dc.rightsThe Author(s)en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong Licenseen_US
dc.subjectPsychologyen_US
dc.subjectHealth Psychologyen_US
dc.subjectPublic Health, generalen_US
dc.subjectStress and Copingen_US
dc.subjectPrimary Care Medicineen_US
dc.subjectGeneral Practice and Family Medicineen_US
dc.subjectCross Cultural Psychologyen_US
dc.titleAssessment of Dietary Restraint: Psychometric Properties of the Revised Restraint Scale in Hong Kong Adolescentsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4551/resserv?sid=springerlink&genre=article&atitle=Assessment of Dietary Restraint: Psychometric Properties of the Revised Restraint Scale in Hong Kong Adolescents&title=International Journal of Behavioral Medicine&issn=10705503&date=2011-05-07& spage=1&authors=Kwok-Kei Mak, Ching-Man Laien_US
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s12529-011-9161-xen_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84863778107en_US
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dc.relation.referencesHerman CP, Mack D. Restrained and unrestrained eating. J Pers. 1975;43:647–60.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00727.xen_US
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dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/0005-7967(83)90208-5en_US
dc.relation.referencesRuderman AJ. The restraint scale: a psychometric investigation. Behav Res Ther. 1983;21:253–8.en_US
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dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00077-0en_US
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dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.01.003en_US
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dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.08.066en_US
dc.relation.referencesLowe MR. Dietary concern, weight fluctuation and weight status: further explorations of the restraint scale. Behav Res Ther. 1984;22:243–8.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/0005-7967(84)90004-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesJohnson WG, Lake L, Mahan JM. Restrained eating: measuring an elusive construct. Addict Behav. 1983;8:413–8.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/0306-4603(83)90042-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesKlem ML, Klesges RC, Bene CR, Mellon MW. A psychometric study of restraint: the impact of race, gender, weight and marital status. Addict Behav. 1990;15:147–52.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/0306-4603(90)90018-Sen_US
dc.relation.referencesRuderman AJ, Christensen H. Restraint theory and its applicability to overweight individuals. J Abnorm Psychology. 1983;92:210–5.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1037/0021-843X.92.2.210en_US
dc.relation.referencesLee S, Lee AM. Disordered eating in three communities of China: a comparative study of female high school students in hong kong, Shenzhen, and rural hunan. Int J Eat Disord. 2000;27:317–27.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200004)27:3%3C317::AID-EAT9%3E3.0.CO;2-2en_US
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dc.relation.referencesStice E, Killen JD, Hayward C, Taylor CB. Age of onset for binge eating and purging during late adolescence: a 4-year survival analysis. J Abnorm Psychol. 1998;107:671–5.en_US
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dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199411)16:3%3C227::AID-EAT2260160303%3E3.0.CO;2-Len_US
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dc.relation.referencesStice E, Hayward C, Cameron RP, Killen JD, Taylor CB. Body-image and eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: a longitudinal study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2000;109:438–44.en_US
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dc.relation.referencesStice E, Bearman SK. Body-image and eating disturbances prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms in adolescent girls: a growth curve analysis. Dev Psychol. 2001;37:597–607.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.5.597en_US
dc.relation.referencesGarner DM, Olmsted MP, Bohr Y, Garfinkel PE. The eating attitudes test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychol Med. 1982;12:871–8.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1017/S0033291700049163en_US
dc.relation.referencesLee S, Kwok K, Liau C, Leung T. Screening Chinese patients with eating disorders using the eating attitudes test in Hong Kong. Int J Eat Disord. 2002;32:91–7.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1002/eat.10064en_US
dc.relation.referencesHawks SR, Merrill C, Julie G, Hawks J. Validation of the motivation for eating scale. Ecol Food Nutr. 2004;43:307–26.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1080/03670240490454714en_US
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dc.relation.referencesBentler PM, Bonett DG. Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol Bull. 1980;88:588–606.en_US
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dc.relation.referencesGregorich SE. Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Med Care. 2006;44:S78–94.en_US
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dc.relation.referencesOverduin J, Jansen A. A new scale for use in non-clinical research into disinhibitive eating. Pers Indiv Differ. 1996;20:669–77.en_US
dc.relation.referencesdoi: 10.1016/0191-8869(96)00010-4en_US
dc.relation.referencesvan Strien T, Breteler MH, Ouwens MA. Restraint scale, its sub-scales concern for dieting and weight fluctuation. Pers Indiv Differ. 2002;33:791–802.en_US
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dc.description.otherSpringer Open Choice, 21 Feb 2012en_US
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