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Article: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for measuring depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong

TitleThe Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for measuring depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong
Authors
KeywordsAge distribution
Chinese health questionnaire
Chronic disease
Clinical assessment tool
Depression
Issue Date2012
PublisherWB Saunders Co. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/comppsych
Citation
Comprehensive Psychiatry, 2012, v. 53 n. 1, p. 95-102 How to Cite?
AbstractObjectives: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) assesses depressive symptoms by self-report, is brief, and was developed to correspond to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for major depression. This article presents information regarding its reliability and validity and the distribution of scores in a Chinese community sample in Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 6028 participants 15 years or older were recruited using random household sampling. They completed the Chinese version of the PHQ-9, the Happiness Scale, the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12). Information was also gathered on health and health service use. Results: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single factor with strong loadings for all 9 items. Multiple-group analyses demonstrated that the structure can be generalized across sex and age groups (ie, adolescents, adults, and individuals 65 years or older). The internal consistency of the PHQ-9 was 0.82. The test-retest reliability over a 2-week interval was 0.76. As expected, the total score of the PHQ-9 was significantly associated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire (r = 0.49) and the Happiness Scale (r = -0.41). In addition, as expected, the relationship with the physical component subscale of the SF-12 was significantly weaker (r = -0.27) than for the mental component subscale of the SF-12 (r = -0.60). Participants with higher scores on the PHQ-9 were more likely to report having been diagnosed with depression by a physician, having chronic illness, using medicine, and using inpatient and outpatient health services. Almost 40% of participants did not report any depressive symptoms (score, 0). Self-reported symptoms at a level that would qualify for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder were provided by 1.7% of the participants. Conclusions: Our data support the reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 in assessing depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong. Its validity against diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and its sensitivity and specificity should be determined in future studies.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/143821
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.043
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.100
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust
Funding Information:

This study was a part of the project "FAMILY: a Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society," which was funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. We sincerely thank Prof Gabriel M. Leung (School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong), who led the FAMILY Project cohort study in the early phase.

References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorYu, Xen_HK
dc.contributor.authorTam, WWSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWong, PTKen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLam, THen_HK
dc.contributor.authorStewart, SMen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2011-12-21T08:56:40Z-
dc.date.available2011-12-21T08:56:40Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_HK
dc.identifier.citationComprehensive Psychiatry, 2012, v. 53 n. 1, p. 95-102en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0010-440Xen_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/143821-
dc.description.abstractObjectives: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) assesses depressive symptoms by self-report, is brief, and was developed to correspond to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for major depression. This article presents information regarding its reliability and validity and the distribution of scores in a Chinese community sample in Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 6028 participants 15 years or older were recruited using random household sampling. They completed the Chinese version of the PHQ-9, the Happiness Scale, the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12). Information was also gathered on health and health service use. Results: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single factor with strong loadings for all 9 items. Multiple-group analyses demonstrated that the structure can be generalized across sex and age groups (ie, adolescents, adults, and individuals 65 years or older). The internal consistency of the PHQ-9 was 0.82. The test-retest reliability over a 2-week interval was 0.76. As expected, the total score of the PHQ-9 was significantly associated with the Chinese Health Questionnaire (r = 0.49) and the Happiness Scale (r = -0.41). In addition, as expected, the relationship with the physical component subscale of the SF-12 was significantly weaker (r = -0.27) than for the mental component subscale of the SF-12 (r = -0.60). Participants with higher scores on the PHQ-9 were more likely to report having been diagnosed with depression by a physician, having chronic illness, using medicine, and using inpatient and outpatient health services. Almost 40% of participants did not report any depressive symptoms (score, 0). Self-reported symptoms at a level that would qualify for a diagnosis of major depressive disorder were provided by 1.7% of the participants. Conclusions: Our data support the reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 in assessing depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kong. Its validity against diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and its sensitivity and specificity should be determined in future studies.en_HK
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherWB Saunders Co. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/comppsychen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofComprehensive Psychiatryen_HK
dc.subjectAge distribution-
dc.subjectChinese health questionnaire-
dc.subjectChronic disease-
dc.subjectClinical assessment tool-
dc.subjectDepression-
dc.titleThe Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for measuring depressive symptoms among the general population in Hong Kongen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailYu, X: yuxn@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailTam, WWS: wwstam@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailLam, TH: hrmrlth@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityYu, X=rp01405en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityTam, WWS=rp01378en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityLam, TH=rp00326en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.11.002en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid21193179-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-82755161909en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros198047en_US
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-82755161909&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume53en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1en_HK
dc.identifier.spage95en_HK
dc.identifier.epage102en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000298304400012-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYu, X=25927714000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridTam, WWS=9740867000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWong, PTK=36697403300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLam, TH=7202522876en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridStewart, SM=35460013800en_HK

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