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Article: Effects of direct current and pulse-reverse copper plating waveforms on the incubation behavior of self-annealing

TitleEffects of direct current and pulse-reverse copper plating waveforms on the incubation behavior of self-annealing
Authors
KeywordsCritical stress
Critical value
Cu films
Direct current
Driving forces
Electroplated Cu films
Energy minimization
High current densities
Impurity content
Impurity effect
Reverse currents
Secondary ion mass spectrometers
Self-annealing
Stress difference
Wave forms
Annealing
Copper
Copper plating
Current density
Film growth
Grain size and shape
Mass spectrometry
Metallic films
X ray diffraction
Grain growth
Issue Date2010
PublisherElsevier S.A.. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/tsf
Citation
Thin Solid Films, 2010, v. 518 n. 24, p. 7468-7474 How to Cite?
AbstractThis study investigates spontaneous microstructural evolution in electroplated Cu films with various plating current densities involving direct current and pulse-reverse waveforms and various possible driving forces. Studies have explained the grain growth and resistivity decrease during the self-annealing of as-deposited Cu film, but the incubation behavior of self-annealing under various direct current and pulse-reverse current waveforms at a certain film thickness is unknown. In this study, it was found that pulse-reverse current retards the incubation behavior more significantly than does direct current. According to the measurements of resistivity, stress, and secondary ion mass spectrometer, the large stress difference between the initial and critical values and the low impurity content of pulse-reverse current postponed the incubation, and led to a slow self-annealing rate. The combination of the stress difference and the impurity effect explains the incubation behavior of self-annealing under various plating current densities. The resistivity and X-ray diffraction results suggest that stress is the primary driving force that dramatically speeds up grain growth above the critical stress, and that high current density with a rapid grain growth rate enhances the (200) texture for strain energy minimization in electroplated Cu film. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/142044
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 1.761
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.726
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorCheng, MYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChen, KWen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLiu, TFen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWang, YLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorFeng, HPen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2011-10-10T07:13:48Z-
dc.date.available2011-10-10T07:13:48Z-
dc.date.issued2010en_HK
dc.identifier.citationThin Solid Films, 2010, v. 518 n. 24, p. 7468-7474en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0040-6090en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/142044-
dc.description.abstractThis study investigates spontaneous microstructural evolution in electroplated Cu films with various plating current densities involving direct current and pulse-reverse waveforms and various possible driving forces. Studies have explained the grain growth and resistivity decrease during the self-annealing of as-deposited Cu film, but the incubation behavior of self-annealing under various direct current and pulse-reverse current waveforms at a certain film thickness is unknown. In this study, it was found that pulse-reverse current retards the incubation behavior more significantly than does direct current. According to the measurements of resistivity, stress, and secondary ion mass spectrometer, the large stress difference between the initial and critical values and the low impurity content of pulse-reverse current postponed the incubation, and led to a slow self-annealing rate. The combination of the stress difference and the impurity effect explains the incubation behavior of self-annealing under various plating current densities. The resistivity and X-ray diffraction results suggest that stress is the primary driving force that dramatically speeds up grain growth above the critical stress, and that high current density with a rapid grain growth rate enhances the (200) texture for strain energy minimization in electroplated Cu film. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.en_HK
dc.publisherElsevier S.A.. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/tsfen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofThin Solid Filmsen_HK
dc.subjectCritical stressen_US
dc.subjectCritical valueen_US
dc.subjectCu filmsen_US
dc.subjectDirect currenten_US
dc.subjectDriving forcesen_US
dc.subjectElectroplated Cu filmsen_US
dc.subjectEnergy minimizationen_US
dc.subjectHigh current densitiesen_US
dc.subjectImpurity contenten_US
dc.subjectImpurity effecten_US
dc.subjectReverse currentsen_US
dc.subjectSecondary ion mass spectrometersen_US
dc.subjectSelf-annealingen_US
dc.subjectStress differenceen_US
dc.subjectWave formsen_US
dc.subjectAnnealingen_US
dc.subjectCopperen_US
dc.subjectCopper platingen_US
dc.subjectCurrent densityen_US
dc.subjectFilm growthen_US
dc.subjectGrain size and shapeen_US
dc.subjectMass spectrometryen_US
dc.subjectMetallic filmsen_US
dc.subjectX ray diffractionen_US
dc.subjectGrain growthen_US
dc.titleEffects of direct current and pulse-reverse copper plating waveforms on the incubation behavior of self-annealingen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailFeng, HP:hpfeng@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityFeng, HP=rp01533en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.tsf.2010.05.026en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-77956799349en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-77956799349&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume518en_HK
dc.identifier.issue24en_HK
dc.identifier.spage7468en_HK
dc.identifier.epage7474en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000282915100067-
dc.publisher.placeSwitzerlanden_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridCheng, MY=26431814100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChen, KW=36489178700en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLiu, TF=7405912312en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWang, YL=36912972000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFeng, HP=11739019400en_HK

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