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Article: Validation of the psychometric properties of the health-promoting lifestyle profile in a sample of Taiwanese women
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TitleValidation of the psychometric properties of the health-promoting lifestyle profile in a sample of Taiwanese women
 
AuthorsLo, M
Wong, CN
 
KeywordsMedicine & Public Health
Quality of Life Research
Sociology
Public Health
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherSpringer Verlag Dordrecht. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0962-9343
 
CitationQuality of Life Research, 2011, v. 20 n. 4, p. 523-528 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9790-6
 
AbstractPURPOSE: To examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) among Taiwanese women. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 137 middle-aged women in southern Taiwan. HPLP II reliability was estimated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson's correlation between the HPLP II, the World Health Organization's abbreviated Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), perceived health, and demographic variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) evaluated construct validity. RESULTS: Initial CFA using a six-factor measurement model aligned with the original HPLP II, excepting the factor loading of one subsequently excluded item. CFA of the revised 51-item HPLP II yielded a good estimate of fit. Correlations between the revised instrument and the six subscales were acceptable >0.7. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient surpassed 0.7 for the revised instrument and six subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. The relationships between the 51-item instrument, perceived health, WHOQOL-BREF domain scores, and demographic variables were also significantly positive. CONCLUSIONS: The revised HPLP II scale is appropriate to measure the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese women.
 
ISSN0962-9343
2012 Impact Factor: 2.412
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.923
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9790-6
 
PubMed Central IDPMC3075398
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000289481100007
 
ReferencesCicconetti, P., Tafaro, L., Tedeschi, G., Tombolillo, M. T., Ciotti, V., Troisi, G., et al. (2002). Lifestyle and cardiovascular aging in centenarians. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, suppl 8, 93–98.. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4943(02)00108-5

Moriyama, C. K., Oneda, B., Bernard, F. K., Cardoso, C. G., Forjaz, C. L. M., Abrahao, S. B., et al. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of physical exercises and estrogen therapy on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15(4:1), 613–618.. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181605494

Walker, S. N., Sechrist, K. R., & Pender, N. J. (1987). The health-promoting lifestyle profile: development and psychometric characteristics. Nursing Research, 36, 76–81.. doi: 10.1097/00006199-198703000-00002

Callaghan, D. M. (2003). Health-promoting self-care behaviors, self-care, self-efficacy and self-care agency. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 247–254.. doi: 10.1177/0894318403016003016

Bombardier, C. H., Cunniffe, M., Wadhwani, R., Gibbons, L. E., Blake, K. D., & Kraft, G. H. (2008). The efficacy of telephone counseling for health promotin in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(10), 1849–1856.. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.021

Teng, H., Yen, M., & Fetzer, S. (2010). Health promotion lifestyle profile-II: Chinese version short form. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(8), 1865–1873.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05353.x

Lo, M. H. (2009). Health-promoting behavior and quality of life among caregivers and non-caregivers in Taiwan: A comparative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(8), 1695–1704.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05032.x

Gulbeyaz, C., Kursat, O., Ozgul, E., Serap, U., Zeliha, T., Sevim, S., et al. (2008). Comparison of the health-promoting lifestyles of nursing and non-nursing students in Istanbul, Turkey. Nursing and Health Sciences, 10, 273–280.. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2008.00405.x

Yao, G., Chung, C. W., Yu, C. F., & Wang, J. D. (2002). Development and verification of validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-Bref Taiwan version. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 101, 342–351.

Frank, D. J., Stephens, B., & Lee, S. H. (1998). Health-promoting behaviors of African-American rural women. Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 2(3), 159–165.

Beal, C. C., Stuifbergen, A. K., & Brown, A. (2009). Predictors of a health promoting lifestyle in women with fibromyaligia syndrome. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 14(3), 343–353.. doi: 10.1080/13548500902730093

MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., & Hong, S. (2001). Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 611–637.. doi: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3604_06

Velicer, W. F., & Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3, 231–251.. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.2.231

Duffy, M. E. (1988). Determinants of health promoting in midlife women. Nursing Research, 37(6), 358–362.. doi: 10.1097/00006199-198811000-00009

Hulme, P. A., Walker, S. N., Effle, K. L., Jorgensen, L., McGowan, M. G., Nelson, J. D., et al. (2003). Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of spanish-speaking hispanic adults. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(3), 244–254.. doi: 10.1177/1043659603014003011

Johnson, R. L. (2005). Gender differences in health-promoting lifestyles of African Americans. Public Health Nursing, 22(2), 130–137.. doi: 10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220206.x

Smith-DiJulio, K., Windsor, C., & Anderson, D. (2010). The shaping of midlife women’s views of health and health behaviors. Qualitative Health Research, 20(7), 966–976.. doi: 10.1177/1049732310362985

Lange-Collett, J. (2002). Promoting health among perimenopausal women through diet and exercise. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 14(4), 172–177.. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2002.tb00109.x

Lee, C. J. (2009). A comparison of health promotion behaviors in rural and urban community spousal caregivers. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35(5), 34–40.

Walker S. N., & Hill-Polerecky D. M. (1996) Psychometric evaluation of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center.

Barrett, P. T., & Kline, P. (1981). The observation to variable ratio in factor analysis. Personality Study in Group Behavior, 1, 23–33.

Pender, N. J. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice. Stanford, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Adams, M. H., Bowden, A. G., Humphrey, D. S., & McAdams, L. B. (2000). Social support and health promotion lifestyles of rural women. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(1), 28–40.

Wolf, M. (1968). The house of lim: The study of a Chinese farm family. New York: Appleton Croft.
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorLo, M
 
dc.contributor.authorWong, CN
 
dc.date.accessioned2011-09-23T06:12:11Z
 
dc.date.available2011-09-23T06:12:11Z
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractPURPOSE: To examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) among Taiwanese women. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 137 middle-aged women in southern Taiwan. HPLP II reliability was estimated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson's correlation between the HPLP II, the World Health Organization's abbreviated Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), perceived health, and demographic variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) evaluated construct validity. RESULTS: Initial CFA using a six-factor measurement model aligned with the original HPLP II, excepting the factor loading of one subsequently excluded item. CFA of the revised 51-item HPLP II yielded a good estimate of fit. Correlations between the revised instrument and the six subscales were acceptable >0.7. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient surpassed 0.7 for the revised instrument and six subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. The relationships between the 51-item instrument, perceived health, WHOQOL-BREF domain scores, and demographic variables were also significantly positive. CONCLUSIONS: The revised HPLP II scale is appropriate to measure the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese women.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.otherSpringer Open Choice, 21 Feb 2012
 
dc.identifier.citationQuality of Life Research, 2011, v. 20 n. 4, p. 523-528 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9790-6
 
dc.identifier.citeulike8337570
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9790-6
 
dc.identifier.eissn1573-2649
 
dc.identifier.epage528
 
dc.identifier.hkuros193696
 
dc.identifier.hkuros210752
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000289481100007
 
dc.identifier.issn0962-9343
2012 Impact Factor: 2.412
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.923
 
dc.identifier.issue4
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3075398
 
dc.identifier.pmid21088913
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-80051725823
 
dc.identifier.spage523
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/140461
 
dc.identifier.volume20
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherSpringer Verlag Dordrecht. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0962-9343
 
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
 
dc.relation.ispartofQuality of Life Research
 
dc.relation.referencesCicconetti, P., Tafaro, L., Tedeschi, G., Tombolillo, M. T., Ciotti, V., Troisi, G., et al. (2002). Lifestyle and cardiovascular aging in centenarians. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, suppl 8, 93–98.. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4943(02)00108-5
 
dc.relation.referencesMoriyama, C. K., Oneda, B., Bernard, F. K., Cardoso, C. G., Forjaz, C. L. M., Abrahao, S. B., et al. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of physical exercises and estrogen therapy on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15(4:1), 613–618.. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181605494
 
dc.relation.referencesWalker, S. N., Sechrist, K. R., & Pender, N. J. (1987). The health-promoting lifestyle profile: development and psychometric characteristics. Nursing Research, 36, 76–81.. doi: 10.1097/00006199-198703000-00002
 
dc.relation.referencesCallaghan, D. M. (2003). Health-promoting self-care behaviors, self-care, self-efficacy and self-care agency. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 247–254.. doi: 10.1177/0894318403016003016
 
dc.relation.referencesBombardier, C. H., Cunniffe, M., Wadhwani, R., Gibbons, L. E., Blake, K. D., & Kraft, G. H. (2008). The efficacy of telephone counseling for health promotin in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(10), 1849–1856.. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.021
 
dc.relation.referencesTeng, H., Yen, M., & Fetzer, S. (2010). Health promotion lifestyle profile-II: Chinese version short form. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(8), 1865–1873.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05353.x
 
dc.relation.referencesLo, M. H. (2009). Health-promoting behavior and quality of life among caregivers and non-caregivers in Taiwan: A comparative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(8), 1695–1704.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05032.x
 
dc.relation.referencesGulbeyaz, C., Kursat, O., Ozgul, E., Serap, U., Zeliha, T., Sevim, S., et al. (2008). Comparison of the health-promoting lifestyles of nursing and non-nursing students in Istanbul, Turkey. Nursing and Health Sciences, 10, 273–280.. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2008.00405.x
 
dc.relation.referencesYao, G., Chung, C. W., Yu, C. F., & Wang, J. D. (2002). Development and verification of validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-Bref Taiwan version. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 101, 342–351.
 
dc.relation.referencesFrank, D. J., Stephens, B., & Lee, S. H. (1998). Health-promoting behaviors of African-American rural women. Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 2(3), 159–165.
 
dc.relation.referencesBeal, C. C., Stuifbergen, A. K., & Brown, A. (2009). Predictors of a health promoting lifestyle in women with fibromyaligia syndrome. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 14(3), 343–353.. doi: 10.1080/13548500902730093
 
dc.relation.referencesMacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., & Hong, S. (2001). Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 611–637.. doi: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3604_06
 
dc.relation.referencesVelicer, W. F., & Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3, 231–251.. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.2.231
 
dc.relation.referencesDuffy, M. E. (1988). Determinants of health promoting in midlife women. Nursing Research, 37(6), 358–362.. doi: 10.1097/00006199-198811000-00009
 
dc.relation.referencesHulme, P. A., Walker, S. N., Effle, K. L., Jorgensen, L., McGowan, M. G., Nelson, J. D., et al. (2003). Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of spanish-speaking hispanic adults. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(3), 244–254.. doi: 10.1177/1043659603014003011
 
dc.relation.referencesJohnson, R. L. (2005). Gender differences in health-promoting lifestyles of African Americans. Public Health Nursing, 22(2), 130–137.. doi: 10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220206.x
 
dc.relation.referencesSmith-DiJulio, K., Windsor, C., & Anderson, D. (2010). The shaping of midlife women’s views of health and health behaviors. Qualitative Health Research, 20(7), 966–976.. doi: 10.1177/1049732310362985
 
dc.relation.referencesLange-Collett, J. (2002). Promoting health among perimenopausal women through diet and exercise. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 14(4), 172–177.. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2002.tb00109.x
 
dc.relation.referencesLee, C. J. (2009). A comparison of health promotion behaviors in rural and urban community spousal caregivers. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35(5), 34–40.
 
dc.relation.referencesWalker S. N., & Hill-Polerecky D. M. (1996) Psychometric evaluation of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center.
 
dc.relation.referencesBarrett, P. T., & Kline, P. (1981). The observation to variable ratio in factor analysis. Personality Study in Group Behavior, 1, 23–33.
 
dc.relation.referencesPender, N. J. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice. Stanford, CT: Appleton & Lange.
 
dc.relation.referencesAdams, M. H., Bowden, A. G., Humphrey, D. S., & McAdams, L. B. (2000). Social support and health promotion lifestyles of rural women. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(1), 28–40.
 
dc.relation.referencesWolf, M. (1968). The house of lim: The study of a Chinese farm family. New York: Appleton Croft.
 
dc.rightsThe original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.subject.meshHealth Promotion
 
dc.subject.meshPsychometrics
 
dc.subject.meshQuestionnaires - standards
 
dc.subject.meshRisk Reduction Behavior
 
dc.subject.meshTaiwan
 
dc.subjectMedicine & Public Health
 
dc.subjectQuality of Life Research
 
dc.subjectSociology
 
dc.subjectPublic Health
 
dc.titleValidation of the psychometric properties of the health-promoting lifestyle profile in a sample of Taiwanese women
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<contributor.author>Wong, CN</contributor.author>
<date.accessioned>2011-09-23T06:12:11Z</date.accessioned>
<date.available>2011-09-23T06:12:11Z</date.available>
<date.issued>2011</date.issued>
<identifier.citation>Quality of Life Research, 2011, v. 20 n. 4, p. 523-528</identifier.citation>
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<description.abstract>PURPOSE: To examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) among Taiwanese women. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 137 middle-aged women in southern Taiwan. HPLP II reliability was estimated with Cronbach&apos;s alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson&apos;s correlation between the HPLP II, the World Health Organization&apos;s abbreviated Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), perceived health, and demographic variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) evaluated construct validity. RESULTS: Initial CFA using a six-factor measurement model aligned with the original HPLP II, excepting the factor loading of one subsequently excluded item. CFA of the revised 51-item HPLP II yielded a good estimate of fit. Correlations between the revised instrument and the six subscales were acceptable &gt;0.7. The Cronbach&apos;s alpha coefficient surpassed 0.7 for the revised instrument and six subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. The relationships between the 51-item instrument, perceived health, WHOQOL-BREF domain scores, and demographic variables were also significantly positive. CONCLUSIONS: The revised HPLP II scale is appropriate to measure the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese women.</description.abstract>
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<relation.references>Cicconetti, P., Tafaro, L., Tedeschi, G., Tombolillo, M. T., Ciotti, V., Troisi, G., et al. (2002). Lifestyle and cardiovascular aging in centenarians. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, suppl 8, 93&#8211;98.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1016/S0167-4943(02)00108-5</relation.references>
<relation.references>Moriyama, C. K., Oneda, B., Bernard, F. K., Cardoso, C. G., Forjaz, C. L. M., Abrahao, S. B., et al. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of physical exercises and estrogen therapy on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 15(4:1), 613&#8211;618.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181605494</relation.references>
<relation.references>Walker, S. N., Sechrist, K. R., &amp; Pender, N. J. (1987). The health-promoting lifestyle profile: development and psychometric characteristics. Nursing Research, 36, 76&#8211;81.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1097/00006199-198703000-00002</relation.references>
<relation.references>Callaghan, D. M. (2003). Health-promoting self-care behaviors, self-care, self-efficacy and self-care agency. Nursing Science Quarterly, 16, 247&#8211;254.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1177/0894318403016003016</relation.references>
<relation.references>Bombardier, C. H., Cunniffe, M., Wadhwani, R., Gibbons, L. E., Blake, K. D., &amp; Kraft, G. H. (2008). The efficacy of telephone counseling for health promotin in people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(10), 1849&#8211;1856.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.03.021</relation.references>
<relation.references>Teng, H., Yen, M., &amp; Fetzer, S. (2010). Health promotion lifestyle profile-II: Chinese version short form. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(8), 1865&#8211;1873.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05353.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Lo, M. H. (2009). Health-promoting behavior and quality of life among caregivers and non-caregivers in Taiwan: A comparative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(8), 1695&#8211;1704.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05032.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Gulbeyaz, C., Kursat, O., Ozgul, E., Serap, U., Zeliha, T., Sevim, S., et al. (2008). Comparison of the health-promoting lifestyles of nursing and non-nursing students in Istanbul, Turkey. Nursing and Health Sciences, 10, 273&#8211;280.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2008.00405.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Yao, G., Chung, C. W., Yu, C. F., &amp; Wang, J. D. (2002). Development and verification of validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-Bref Taiwan version. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 101, 342&#8211;351.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Frank, D. J., Stephens, B., &amp; Lee, S. H. (1998). Health-promoting behaviors of African-American rural women. Clinical Excellence for Nurse Practitioners, 2(3), 159&#8211;165.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Beal, C. C., Stuifbergen, A. K., &amp; Brown, A. (2009). Predictors of a health promoting lifestyle in women with fibromyaligia syndrome. Psychology, Health &amp; Medicine, 14(3), 343&#8211;353.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1080/13548500902730093</relation.references>
<relation.references>MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., &amp; Hong, S. (2001). Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 611&#8211;637.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3604_06</relation.references>
<relation.references>Velicer, W. F., &amp; Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3, 231&#8211;251.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.2.231</relation.references>
<relation.references>Duffy, M. E. (1988). Determinants of health promoting in midlife women. Nursing Research, 37(6), 358&#8211;362.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1097/00006199-198811000-00009</relation.references>
<relation.references>Hulme, P. A., Walker, S. N., Effle, K. L., Jorgensen, L., McGowan, M. G., Nelson, J. D., et al. (2003). Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of spanish-speaking hispanic adults. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(3), 244&#8211;254.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1177/1043659603014003011</relation.references>
<relation.references>Johnson, R. L. (2005). Gender differences in health-promoting lifestyles of African Americans. Public Health Nursing, 22(2), 130&#8211;137.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220206.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Smith-DiJulio, K., Windsor, C., &amp; Anderson, D. (2010). The shaping of midlife women&#8217;s views of health and health behaviors. Qualitative Health Research, 20(7), 966&#8211;976.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1177/1049732310362985</relation.references>
<relation.references>Lange-Collett, J. (2002). Promoting health among perimenopausal women through diet and exercise. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 14(4), 172&#8211;177.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2002.tb00109.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Lee, C. J. (2009). A comparison of health promotion behaviors in rural and urban community spousal caregivers. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35(5), 34&#8211;40.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Walker S. N., &amp; Hill-Polerecky D. M. (1996) Psychometric evaluation of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Nebraska Medical Center.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Barrett, P. T., &amp; Kline, P. (1981). The observation to variable ratio in factor analysis. Personality Study in Group Behavior, 1, 23&#8211;33.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Pender, N. J. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice. Stanford, CT: Appleton &amp; Lange.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Adams, M. H., Bowden, A. G., Humphrey, D. S., &amp; McAdams, L. B. (2000). Social support and health promotion lifestyles of rural women. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 1(1), 28&#8211;40.</relation.references>
<relation.references>Wolf, M. (1968). The house of lim: The study of a Chinese farm family. New York: Appleton Croft.</relation.references>
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<identifier.isi>WOS:000289481100007</identifier.isi>
<publisher.place>Netherlands</publisher.place>
<description.other>Springer Open Choice, 21 Feb 2012</description.other>
<identifier.citeulike>8337570</identifier.citeulike>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/140461/1/11136_2010_Article_9790.pdf</bitstream.url>
</item>
Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong