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Article: Quantification of the lateral detachment force for bacterial cells using atomic force microscope and centrifugation
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TitleQuantification of the lateral detachment force for bacterial cells using atomic force microscope and centrifugation
 
AuthorsZhang, T1
Chao, Y1
Shih, K1
Li, XY1
Fang, HHP1
 
KeywordsAtomic force microscope
Centrifugation
Escherichia coli
Lateral detachment force
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ultramic
 
CitationUltramicroscopy, 2011, v. 111 n. 2, p. 131-139 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.10.005
 
AbstractTo determine the lateral detachment force for individual bacterial cells, a quantitative method using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed in this study. Three key factors for the proposed method, i.e. scan size, scan rate and cantilever choice, were evaluated and optimized. The scan size of 40×40γm2 was optimal for capturing sufficient number of adhered cells in a microscopic field and provide adequate information for cell identification and detachment force measurement. The scan rate affected the measurement results significantly, and was optimized at 40γm/s considering both force measurement accuracy and experimental efficiency. The hardness of applied cantilevers also influenced force determination. The proposed protocol for cantilever selection is to use those with the lowest spring constant first and then step up to a harder cantilever until all cells are detached. The lateral detachment force of Escherichia coli cells on polished stainless steel and a glass-slide coated with poly-l-lysine were measured as 0.763±0.167 and 0.639±0.136nN, respectively. The results showed that the established method had good repeatability and sensitivity to various bacteria/substrata combinations. The detachment force quantified by AFM (0.639±0.136nN) was comparable to that measured by the centrifugation method (1.12nN). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
 
ISSN0304-3991
2013 Impact Factor: 2.745
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.818
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.10.005
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000286552200007
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Hong Kong UGCSEG HKU10
HKU
Funding Information:

The authors wish to thank the Hong Kong UGC One-off Special Equipment Grant Scheme (SEG HKU10) for the financial support on this study, and Yuanqing Chao wishes to thank HKU for the postgraduate studentship. The technical assistance of Ms. Vicky Fung is greatly appreciated. The authors would also like to thank the reviewers for their comments.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorZhang, T
 
dc.contributor.authorChao, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorShih, K
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, XY
 
dc.contributor.authorFang, HHP
 
dc.date.accessioned2011-09-23T05:44:27Z
 
dc.date.available2011-09-23T05:44:27Z
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractTo determine the lateral detachment force for individual bacterial cells, a quantitative method using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed in this study. Three key factors for the proposed method, i.e. scan size, scan rate and cantilever choice, were evaluated and optimized. The scan size of 40×40γm2 was optimal for capturing sufficient number of adhered cells in a microscopic field and provide adequate information for cell identification and detachment force measurement. The scan rate affected the measurement results significantly, and was optimized at 40γm/s considering both force measurement accuracy and experimental efficiency. The hardness of applied cantilevers also influenced force determination. The proposed protocol for cantilever selection is to use those with the lowest spring constant first and then step up to a harder cantilever until all cells are detached. The lateral detachment force of Escherichia coli cells on polished stainless steel and a glass-slide coated with poly-l-lysine were measured as 0.763±0.167 and 0.639±0.136nN, respectively. The results showed that the established method had good repeatability and sensitivity to various bacteria/substrata combinations. The detachment force quantified by AFM (0.639±0.136nN) was comparable to that measured by the centrifugation method (1.12nN). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationUltramicroscopy, 2011, v. 111 n. 2, p. 131-139 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.10.005
 
dc.identifier.citeulike8297634
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.10.005
 
dc.identifier.epage139
 
dc.identifier.hkuros192699
 
dc.identifier.hkuros208094
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000286552200007
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Hong Kong UGCSEG HKU10
HKU
Funding Information:

The authors wish to thank the Hong Kong UGC One-off Special Equipment Grant Scheme (SEG HKU10) for the financial support on this study, and Yuanqing Chao wishes to thank HKU for the postgraduate studentship. The technical assistance of Ms. Vicky Fung is greatly appreciated. The authors would also like to thank the reviewers for their comments.

 
dc.identifier.issn0304-3991
2013 Impact Factor: 2.745
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.818
 
dc.identifier.issue2
 
dc.identifier.pmid21185457
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-78449233654
 
dc.identifier.spage131
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/139034
 
dc.identifier.volume111
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ultramic
 
dc.publisher.placeNetherlands
 
dc.relation.ispartofUltramicroscopy
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subject.meshBacterial Adhesion
 
dc.subject.meshCentrifugation - methods
 
dc.subject.meshEscherichia coli K12 - physiology
 
dc.subject.meshMicroscopy, Atomic Force - methods
 
dc.subject.meshReproducibility of Results
 
dc.subjectAtomic force microscope
 
dc.subjectCentrifugation
 
dc.subjectEscherichia coli
 
dc.subjectLateral detachment force
 
dc.titleQuantification of the lateral detachment force for bacterial cells using atomic force microscope and centrifugation
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong