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Article: Copper stabilization via spinel formation during the sintering of simulated copper-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors
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TitleCopper stabilization via spinel formation during the sintering of simulated copper-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors
 
AuthorsTang, Y1
Chui, SSY1
Shih, K1
Zhang, L1
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society. The Journal's web site is located at http://pubs.acs.org/est
 
CitationEnvironmental Science And Technology, 2011, v. 45 n. 8, p. 3598-3604 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103596k
 
AbstractThe feasibility of incorporating copper-laden sludge into low-cost ceramic products, such as construction ceramics, was investigated by sintering simulated copper-laden sludge with four aluminum-rich ceramic precursors. The results indicated that all of these precursors (γ-Al2O3, corundum, kaolinite, mullite) could crystallochemically stabilize the hazardous copper in the more durable copper aluminate spinel (CuAl2O 4) structure. To simulate the process of copper transformation into a spinel structure, CuO was mixed with the four aluminum-rich precursors, and fired at 650-1150 °C for 3 h. The products were examined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The efficiency of copper transformation among crystalline phases was quantitatively determined through Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD data. The sintering experiment revealed that the optimal sintering temperature for CuAl2O 4 formation was around 1000 °C and that the efficiency of copper incorporation into the crystalline CuAl2O4 structure after 3 h of sintering ranged from 40 to 95%, depending on the type of aluminum precursor used. Prolonged leaching tests were carried out by using acetic acid with an initial pH value of 2.9 to leach CuO and CuAl2O4 samples for 22 d. The sample leachability analysis revealed that the CuAl 2O4 spinel structure was more superior to stabilize copper, and suggested a promising and reliable technique for incorporating copper-laden sludge or its incineration ash into usable ceramic products. Such results also demonstrated the potential of a waste-to-resource strategy by using waste materials as part of the raw materials with the attainable temperature range used in the production of ceramics. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
 
DescriptionErratum in Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Sep 1;45(17):7609-7610.
 
ISSN0013-936X
2012 Impact Factor: 5.257
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.665
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103596k
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000289341300058
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grants Council of Hong KongHKU 716809E
Funding Information:

This work was financially supported by the General Research Fund Scheme of the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (HKU 716809E). We thank Professor Chi-Ming Che at HKU for the use of XRD at the HKU-CAS joint laboratory. The contribution of HiQ-7223 alumina by the Alcoa Corporation is gratefully acknowledged.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
GrantsSorption of Perfluorochemicals on Sediments and Sludge of Hong Kong
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorTang, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorChui, SSY
 
dc.contributor.authorShih, K
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, L
 
dc.date.accessioned2011-07-27T01:26:21Z
 
dc.date.available2011-07-27T01:26:21Z
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractThe feasibility of incorporating copper-laden sludge into low-cost ceramic products, such as construction ceramics, was investigated by sintering simulated copper-laden sludge with four aluminum-rich ceramic precursors. The results indicated that all of these precursors (γ-Al2O3, corundum, kaolinite, mullite) could crystallochemically stabilize the hazardous copper in the more durable copper aluminate spinel (CuAl2O 4) structure. To simulate the process of copper transformation into a spinel structure, CuO was mixed with the four aluminum-rich precursors, and fired at 650-1150 °C for 3 h. The products were examined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The efficiency of copper transformation among crystalline phases was quantitatively determined through Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD data. The sintering experiment revealed that the optimal sintering temperature for CuAl2O 4 formation was around 1000 °C and that the efficiency of copper incorporation into the crystalline CuAl2O4 structure after 3 h of sintering ranged from 40 to 95%, depending on the type of aluminum precursor used. Prolonged leaching tests were carried out by using acetic acid with an initial pH value of 2.9 to leach CuO and CuAl2O4 samples for 22 d. The sample leachability analysis revealed that the CuAl 2O4 spinel structure was more superior to stabilize copper, and suggested a promising and reliable technique for incorporating copper-laden sludge or its incineration ash into usable ceramic products. Such results also demonstrated the potential of a waste-to-resource strategy by using waste materials as part of the raw materials with the attainable temperature range used in the production of ceramics. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.descriptionErratum in Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Sep 1;45(17):7609-7610.
 
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Science And Technology, 2011, v. 45 n. 8, p. 3598-3604 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103596k
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es103596k
 
dc.identifier.eissn1520-5851
 
dc.identifier.epage3604
 
dc.identifier.hkuros186429
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000289341300058
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grants Council of Hong KongHKU 716809E
Funding Information:

This work was financially supported by the General Research Fund Scheme of the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (HKU 716809E). We thank Professor Chi-Ming Che at HKU for the use of XRD at the HKU-CAS joint laboratory. The contribution of HiQ-7223 alumina by the Alcoa Corporation is gratefully acknowledged.

 
dc.identifier.issn0013-936X
2012 Impact Factor: 5.257
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.665
 
dc.identifier.issue8
 
dc.identifier.pmid21428386
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-79954542144
 
dc.identifier.spage3598
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/135032
 
dc.identifier.volume45
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society. The Journal's web site is located at http://pubs.acs.org/est
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Science and Technology
 
dc.relation.projectSorption of Perfluorochemicals on Sediments and Sludge of Hong Kong
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subject.meshAluminum - chemistry
 
dc.subject.meshCeramics - chemistry
 
dc.subject.meshCopper - chemistry
 
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Pollutants - chemistry
 
dc.subject.meshWaste Management - methods
 
dc.titleCopper stabilization via spinel formation during the sintering of simulated copper-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<description.abstract>The feasibility of incorporating copper-laden sludge into low-cost ceramic products, such as construction ceramics, was investigated by sintering simulated copper-laden sludge with four aluminum-rich ceramic precursors. The results indicated that all of these precursors (&#947;-Al2O3, corundum, kaolinite, mullite) could crystallochemically stabilize the hazardous copper in the more durable copper aluminate spinel (CuAl2O 4) structure. To simulate the process of copper transformation into a spinel structure, CuO was mixed with the four aluminum-rich precursors, and fired at 650-1150 &#176;C for 3 h. The products were examined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The efficiency of copper transformation among crystalline phases was quantitatively determined through Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD data. The sintering experiment revealed that the optimal sintering temperature for CuAl2O 4 formation was around 1000 &#176;C and that the efficiency of copper incorporation into the crystalline CuAl2O4 structure after 3 h of sintering ranged from 40 to 95%, depending on the type of aluminum precursor used. Prolonged leaching tests were carried out by using acetic acid with an initial pH value of 2.9 to leach CuO and CuAl2O4 samples for 22 d. The sample leachability analysis revealed that the CuAl 2O4 spinel structure was more superior to stabilize copper, and suggested a promising and reliable technique for incorporating copper-laden sludge or its incineration ash into usable ceramic products. Such results also demonstrated the potential of a waste-to-resource strategy by using waste materials as part of the raw materials with the attainable temperature range used in the production of ceramics. &#169; 2011 American Chemical Society.</description.abstract>
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong