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Article: Rurality and pandemic influenza: Geographic heterogeneity in the risks of infection and death in Kanagawa, Japan (1918-1919)

TitleRurality and pandemic influenza: Geographic heterogeneity in the risks of infection and death in Kanagawa, Japan (1918-1919)
Authors
KeywordsReferences (30) View In Table Layout
Issue Date2008
PublisherNew Zealand Medical Association. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/
Citation
New Zealand Medical Journal, 2008, v. 121 n. 1284 How to Cite?
AbstractAim: To characterise the impact of rurality on the spread of pandemic influenza by exploring both the numbers of cases and deaths in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from October 1918 to April 1919 inclusive. Method: In addition to the numbers of influenza cases and deaths, population sizes were extracted from census data, permitting estimations of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality by 199 different regions (population 1.4 million). These outcomes were compared between four groups; cities (n=6), larger towns (38), smaller towns (101), and villages (54). Results: Whereas crude mortality in villages was lower than those of other population groups, the morbidity appeared to be the highest in villages, revealing significant difference compared to all cities and towns [risk ratio=0.601 (95% confidence interval: 0.600-0.602)]. Villages also yielded the lowest case fatality, the difference of which was statistically significant among four population groups (p=0.02). Conclusion: Rurality did not show a predictive value of protection against pandemic influenza in Kanagawa. Lower morbidity in the towns and cities is likely explained by effective preventive measures in urban areas. High morbidity in rural areas highlights the potential importance of social distancing measures in order to minimise infections in the event of the next influenza pandemic. © NZMA.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/134215
ISSN
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorNishiura, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChowell, Gen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2011-06-13T07:20:52Z-
dc.date.available2011-06-13T07:20:52Z-
dc.date.issued2008en_HK
dc.identifier.citationNew Zealand Medical Journal, 2008, v. 121 n. 1284en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1175-8716en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/134215-
dc.description.abstractAim: To characterise the impact of rurality on the spread of pandemic influenza by exploring both the numbers of cases and deaths in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from October 1918 to April 1919 inclusive. Method: In addition to the numbers of influenza cases and deaths, population sizes were extracted from census data, permitting estimations of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality by 199 different regions (population 1.4 million). These outcomes were compared between four groups; cities (n=6), larger towns (38), smaller towns (101), and villages (54). Results: Whereas crude mortality in villages was lower than those of other population groups, the morbidity appeared to be the highest in villages, revealing significant difference compared to all cities and towns [risk ratio=0.601 (95% confidence interval: 0.600-0.602)]. Villages also yielded the lowest case fatality, the difference of which was statistically significant among four population groups (p=0.02). Conclusion: Rurality did not show a predictive value of protection against pandemic influenza in Kanagawa. Lower morbidity in the towns and cities is likely explained by effective preventive measures in urban areas. High morbidity in rural areas highlights the potential importance of social distancing measures in order to minimise infections in the event of the next influenza pandemic. © NZMA.en_HK
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherNew Zealand Medical Association. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofNew Zealand Medical Journalen_HK
dc.subjectReferences (30) View In Table Layouten_US
dc.subject.meshDisease Outbreaks - historyen_HK
dc.subject.meshHistory, 20th Centuryen_HK
dc.subject.meshHumansen_HK
dc.subject.meshInfluenza, Human - epidemiology - historyen_HK
dc.subject.meshJapan - epidemiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshPopulationen_HK
dc.subject.meshResidence Characteristicsen_HK
dc.titleRurality and pandemic influenza: Geographic heterogeneity in the risks of infection and death in Kanagawa, Japan (1918-1919)en_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailNishiura, H:nishiura@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityNishiura, H=rp01488en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.pmid18953383-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-56149123330en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-56149123330&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume121en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1284en_HK
dc.publisher.placeNew Zealanden_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridNishiura, H=7005501836en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChowell, G=9845935500en_HK

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