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Article: Collaborators and public opinion In the early Qing

TitleCollaborators and public opinion In the early Qing
降清明臣與清初輿論
Authors
KeywordsAdherents
Turncoat official
Late Ming
Early Qing
Qian Qianyi (錢謙益)
Wu Weiye (吳偉業)
Issue Date2009
Publisher漢學硏究中心. The Journal's web site is located at http://ccs.ncl.edu.tw/ccs/TW/Publish1.asp
Citation
Chinese Studies, 2009, v. 27 n. 4, p. 197-228 How to Cite?
漢學研究, 2009, v. 27 n. 4, p. 197-228 How to Cite?
Abstract自從乾隆皇帝編修《貳臣傳》以貶斥降清明臣後,史家論及清初貳臣,多認為他們「大節有虧」,備受當世所譴責。然而,考諸史實,明、清之際不單是一個舊政權解體而新政權尚未取得統一的時代,同時也是一個官方意識形態暫時失卻了主導地位的時期。明末弊政引發了人們對「愚忠」的質疑;重建社會秩序和延續華夏文化等迫切需要,也促使時人於議事論人時,每多著重事功和社會實效,反而較少空談道德原則。因此,那些在改善民生、恢復社會秩序,以及維護華夏文化於不墜等幾方面有實績的清初明降臣,輿論對他們亦普遍採取了較為寬容的態度,並肯定他們在局勢紛亂的艱難環境下所作出的貢獻。 Since the compilation of the Biographies of Twice-serving Ministers (貳臣傳 Erchen Zhuan) in the Qianlong 乾隆 era, it has been generally believed that the Qing collaborators were condemned by contemporaries for their betrayal of the Ming dynasty. However, this impression, which was generated under the influence of Qianlong ideology, is severely challenged by the historical evidence. This paper points out that the Ming-Qing dynastic change was a period of political transition in which ideological control was relaxed. Citing comments made by early-Qing literati on the surrendered Ming officials, it argues that the corrupt politics of the late Ming gave rise to criticism of “blind loyalty,” an ideology advocated by the ruling class; the urgent need to restore social order and maintain the transmission of Chinese culture in the early Qing also led to an emphasis on social pragmatism rather than moral idealism in discussions of official matters. As a result, those former Ming officials in Qing office whose deeds contributed to the improvement of the people’s livelihood, the restoration of social order, or the transmission of Chinese culture won the public’s sympathy and acknowledgement for their contributions.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/130954
ISSN

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChan, WM-
dc.contributor.author陳永明zh_HK
dc.date.accessioned2011-01-14T07:02:31Z-
dc.date.available2011-01-14T07:02:31Z-
dc.date.issued2009-
dc.identifier.citationChinese Studies, 2009, v. 27 n. 4, p. 197-228-
dc.identifier.citation漢學研究, 2009, v. 27 n. 4, p. 197-228zh_HK
dc.identifier.issn0254-4466-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/130954-
dc.description.abstract自從乾隆皇帝編修《貳臣傳》以貶斥降清明臣後,史家論及清初貳臣,多認為他們「大節有虧」,備受當世所譴責。然而,考諸史實,明、清之際不單是一個舊政權解體而新政權尚未取得統一的時代,同時也是一個官方意識形態暫時失卻了主導地位的時期。明末弊政引發了人們對「愚忠」的質疑;重建社會秩序和延續華夏文化等迫切需要,也促使時人於議事論人時,每多著重事功和社會實效,反而較少空談道德原則。因此,那些在改善民生、恢復社會秩序,以及維護華夏文化於不墜等幾方面有實績的清初明降臣,輿論對他們亦普遍採取了較為寬容的態度,並肯定他們在局勢紛亂的艱難環境下所作出的貢獻。 Since the compilation of the Biographies of Twice-serving Ministers (貳臣傳 Erchen Zhuan) in the Qianlong 乾隆 era, it has been generally believed that the Qing collaborators were condemned by contemporaries for their betrayal of the Ming dynasty. However, this impression, which was generated under the influence of Qianlong ideology, is severely challenged by the historical evidence. This paper points out that the Ming-Qing dynastic change was a period of political transition in which ideological control was relaxed. Citing comments made by early-Qing literati on the surrendered Ming officials, it argues that the corrupt politics of the late Ming gave rise to criticism of “blind loyalty,” an ideology advocated by the ruling class; the urgent need to restore social order and maintain the transmission of Chinese culture in the early Qing also led to an emphasis on social pragmatism rather than moral idealism in discussions of official matters. As a result, those former Ming officials in Qing office whose deeds contributed to the improvement of the people’s livelihood, the restoration of social order, or the transmission of Chinese culture won the public’s sympathy and acknowledgement for their contributions.zh_HK
dc.languagechi-
dc.publisher漢學硏究中心. The Journal's web site is located at http://ccs.ncl.edu.tw/ccs/TW/Publish1.aspzh_HK
dc.relation.ispartofChinese Studies-
dc.relation.ispartof漢學研究zh_HK
dc.subjectAdherents-
dc.subjectTurncoat official-
dc.subjectLate Ming-
dc.subjectEarly Qing-
dc.subjectQian Qianyi (錢謙益)zh_HK
dc.subjectWu Weiye (吳偉業)zh_HK
dc.titleCollaborators and public opinion In the early Qingen_US
dc.title降清明臣與清初輿論zh_HK
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0254-4466&volume=27&issue=4&spage=197&epage=228&date=2009&atitle=Collaborators+and+public+opinion+In+the+early+Qing-
dc.identifier.emailChan, WM: wmchan_hk@yahoo.com-
dc.identifier.hkuros168835-
dc.identifier.volume27-
dc.identifier.issue4-
dc.identifier.spage197-
dc.identifier.epage228-

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