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Conference Paper: A study of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters assay in children with undiagnosed neurological diseases in Hong Kong
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TitleA study of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters assay in children with undiagnosed neurological diseases in Hong Kong
 
AuthorsFung, CW
Siu, S
Poon, G
Kwok, A
Cheung, PT
Low, L
Mak, C
Tam, S
Wong, VCN
 
KeywordsMedical sciences
 
Issue Date2009
 
PublisherHong Kong Medical Association. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.hkmj.org/index.html
 
CitationThe 1st Hong Kong Neurological Congress cum 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Hong Kong Neurological Society, Hong Kong, 6-8 November 2009. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2009, v. 15 n. 6, suppl. 7, p. 31, abstract no. FP8 [How to Cite?]
 
AbstractBACKGROUND: Paediatric neurotransmitter diseases (PNDs) are a group of disorders with a wide clinical spectrum of presentations including neonatal seizures, unexplained movement disorders such as dystonia, rigidity or ataxia, eye abnormalities including oculogyric crises, convergence spasm, ptosis or other intermittent ocular movement abnormalities, and autonomic symptoms like sweating, temperature instability, hypoglycaemia and hypothermia. METHODS: From 2004 to 2009, 114 children, aged 2 days to 33 years, with undiagnosed neurological diseases underwent lumbar puncture. Patients had one or more of the following symptoms: movement disorders, mental retardation/cognitive decline, epilepsy and spasticity which might be suggestive of disorders of biopterin, catecholamine and serotonin metabolism or cerebral folate deficiency. Extensive workup was unrevealing which included neuroimaging, cytogenetic studies, preliminary blood and urine for metabolic investigations. From 2004 to 2007, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sent to the Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Switzerland (Dr N Blau) for neurotransmitters assay. From 2007 onwards, the analysis was performed in the Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. RESULTS: The presenting features of our cohort included various combination of clinical symptoms such as dystonia/rigidity, epilepsy which could be intractable, cognitive regression, global developmental delay/mental retardation, oculogyric crises, spasticity and hypotonia. Ten (8.8%) patients had abnormal neurotransmitters profile compatible with 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency (n=5), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency (n=2), idiopathic cerebral folate deficiency (CFD; n=2), aromatic L-amino decarboxylase deficiency (AADC) deficiency (n=1). Ultimate diagnosis was confirmed by genetic study in all patients with PTPS deficiency, TH deficiency and AADC deficiency. Two patients with CFD showed elevated autoantibodies against folate receptor (FR) confirming the diagnosis. Treatment was commenced in all 10 patients. One patient with PTPS deficiency revealed complete resolution of a parkinsonism state after replacement with tetrahydrobiopterin and L-dopa/carbidopa with normal intelligence. Another patient with PTPS deficiency only showed normalisation of hyperphenylalaninaemia without obvious clinical improvement with still significant generalised dystonia and moderate mental retardation. The remaining three patients with PTPS deficiency showed no neurological signs but with mild learning problem. One patient with TH deficiency demonstrated marked improvement in her dystonia and oculogyric crises after treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and significant developmental progress. Another patient with TH deficiency did not reveal definite improvement and developed drug-induced dyskinesia. The child with CFD showed no more regression in cognitive and motor functions after replacement with folinic acid. His younger brother, who was nearly asymptomatic except mild spasticity over both lower limbs, did not have further deterioration in neurological functions after treatment. The patient with AADC deficiency was just started on bromocriptine and vitamin B6 treatment. CONCLUSION: Paediatric neurotransmitter disease, a group of potentially treatable neurometabolic diseases, should be considered in any child with unexplained neurological symptoms including movement disorder, cognitive regression, oculogyric crises and spasticity. Early identification and treatment will improve morbidity and mortality.
 
ISSN1024-2708
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.293
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorFung, CW
 
dc.contributor.authorSiu, S
 
dc.contributor.authorPoon, G
 
dc.contributor.authorKwok, A
 
dc.contributor.authorCheung, PT
 
dc.contributor.authorLow, L
 
dc.contributor.authorMak, C
 
dc.contributor.authorTam, S
 
dc.contributor.authorWong, VCN
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-12-23T08:43:52Z
 
dc.date.available2010-12-23T08:43:52Z
 
dc.date.issued2009
 
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Paediatric neurotransmitter diseases (PNDs) are a group of disorders with a wide clinical spectrum of presentations including neonatal seizures, unexplained movement disorders such as dystonia, rigidity or ataxia, eye abnormalities including oculogyric crises, convergence spasm, ptosis or other intermittent ocular movement abnormalities, and autonomic symptoms like sweating, temperature instability, hypoglycaemia and hypothermia. METHODS: From 2004 to 2009, 114 children, aged 2 days to 33 years, with undiagnosed neurological diseases underwent lumbar puncture. Patients had one or more of the following symptoms: movement disorders, mental retardation/cognitive decline, epilepsy and spasticity which might be suggestive of disorders of biopterin, catecholamine and serotonin metabolism or cerebral folate deficiency. Extensive workup was unrevealing which included neuroimaging, cytogenetic studies, preliminary blood and urine for metabolic investigations. From 2004 to 2007, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sent to the Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Children’s Hospital Zurich, Switzerland (Dr N Blau) for neurotransmitters assay. From 2007 onwards, the analysis was performed in the Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. RESULTS: The presenting features of our cohort included various combination of clinical symptoms such as dystonia/rigidity, epilepsy which could be intractable, cognitive regression, global developmental delay/mental retardation, oculogyric crises, spasticity and hypotonia. Ten (8.8%) patients had abnormal neurotransmitters profile compatible with 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency (n=5), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency (n=2), idiopathic cerebral folate deficiency (CFD; n=2), aromatic L-amino decarboxylase deficiency (AADC) deficiency (n=1). Ultimate diagnosis was confirmed by genetic study in all patients with PTPS deficiency, TH deficiency and AADC deficiency. Two patients with CFD showed elevated autoantibodies against folate receptor (FR) confirming the diagnosis. Treatment was commenced in all 10 patients. One patient with PTPS deficiency revealed complete resolution of a parkinsonism state after replacement with tetrahydrobiopterin and L-dopa/carbidopa with normal intelligence. Another patient with PTPS deficiency only showed normalisation of hyperphenylalaninaemia without obvious clinical improvement with still significant generalised dystonia and moderate mental retardation. The remaining three patients with PTPS deficiency showed no neurological signs but with mild learning problem. One patient with TH deficiency demonstrated marked improvement in her dystonia and oculogyric crises after treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and significant developmental progress. Another patient with TH deficiency did not reveal definite improvement and developed drug-induced dyskinesia. The child with CFD showed no more regression in cognitive and motor functions after replacement with folinic acid. His younger brother, who was nearly asymptomatic except mild spasticity over both lower limbs, did not have further deterioration in neurological functions after treatment. The patient with AADC deficiency was just started on bromocriptine and vitamin B6 treatment. CONCLUSION: Paediatric neurotransmitter disease, a group of potentially treatable neurometabolic diseases, should be considered in any child with unexplained neurological symptoms including movement disorder, cognitive regression, oculogyric crises and spasticity. Early identification and treatment will improve morbidity and mortality.
 
dc.description.otherThe 1st Hong Kong Neurological Congress cum 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Hong Kong Neurological Society, Hong Kong, 6-8 November 2009. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2009, v. 15 n. 6, suppl. 7, p. 31, abstract no. FP8
 
dc.identifier.citationThe 1st Hong Kong Neurological Congress cum 22nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Hong Kong Neurological Society, Hong Kong, 6-8 November 2009. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2009, v. 15 n. 6, suppl. 7, p. 31, abstract no. FP8 [How to Cite?]
 
dc.identifier.epage31
 
dc.identifier.hkuros176995
 
dc.identifier.issn1024-2708
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.293
 
dc.identifier.issue6, suppl. 7
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.spage31
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/129891
 
dc.identifier.volume15
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherHong Kong Medical Association. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.hkmj.org/index.html
 
dc.relation.ispartofHong Kong Medical Journal
 
dc.rightsHong Kong Medical Journal. Copyright © Hong Kong Medical Association.
 
dc.subjectMedical sciences
 
dc.titleA study of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters assay in children with undiagnosed neurological diseases in Hong Kong
 
dc.typeConference_Paper
 
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<contributor.author>Siu, S</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Poon, G</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Kwok, A</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Cheung, PT</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Low, L</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Mak, C</contributor.author>
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