File Download
  Links for fulltext
     (May Require Subscription)
Supplementary

Article: Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

TitleUniversal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion
Authors
KeywordsVaccine design
Viral escape mechanisms
Influenza viruses
Antibodies
T cells memory
Issue Date2014
Citation
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2014, v. 5, n. JUN How to Cite?
AbstractAlthough an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody (Ab) responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a great need for cross-protective or "universal" influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunization against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1, and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity through vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive Ab responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been recently examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and Abs, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and propose how to counteract commonly occurring immune-escape variants. © 2014 Quiñones-Parra, Loh, Brown, Kedzierska and Valkenburg.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/241207
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorQuiñones-Parra, Sergio-
dc.contributor.authorLoh, Liyen-
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Lorena E.-
dc.contributor.authorKedzierska, Katherine-
dc.contributor.authorValkenburg, Sophie A.-
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-26T03:37:06Z-
dc.date.available2017-05-26T03:37:06Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Microbiology, 2014, v. 5, n. JUN-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/241207-
dc.description.abstractAlthough an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody (Ab) responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a great need for cross-protective or "universal" influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunization against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1, and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity through vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive Ab responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been recently examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and Abs, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and propose how to counteract commonly occurring immune-escape variants. © 2014 Quiñones-Parra, Loh, Brown, Kedzierska and Valkenburg.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Microbiology-
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.-
dc.subjectVaccine design-
dc.subjectViral escape mechanisms-
dc.subjectInfluenza viruses-
dc.subjectAntibodies-
dc.subjectT cells memory-
dc.titleUniversal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fmicb.2014.00285-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84905171266-
dc.identifier.volume5-
dc.identifier.issueJUN-
dc.identifier.spagenull-
dc.identifier.epagenull-
dc.identifier.eissn1664-302X-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000337535300001-

Export via OAI-PMH Interface in XML Formats


OR


Export to Other Non-XML Formats