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postgraduate thesis: Theoretical studies of some topological systems

TitleTheoretical studies of some topological systems
Authors
Issue Date2016
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Zhang, D. [张旦波]. (2016). Theoretical studies of some topological systems. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.
AbstractUnderstanding the interplay between symmetries and phases lies at the heart of characterizing states of matter. The conventional Landau's paradigm associates local ordered states with symmetry breaking, but this paradigm fails to include gapped topological phases, which can only be distinguished by the global topological invariant and the present of gapless edge modes at open boundaries. In this thesis, variety of states of matter is enriched from two aspects: a new paradigm of phases that incorporates both symmetry broken phase and topological phase, and exotic topological phases that are realized in different degree of freedoms of the same system. The two aspects are explored by studying corresponding one dimensional fermionic models. Besides gapped phases, exotic quasiparticle interferences of gapless topological systems are also investigated. The first chapter serves as a theoretical basis for the next two chapters by giving an introduction to topological phases in one dimension. In particular, a bosonization method is introduced to describe topological degeneracy and edge zero modes, which is favoured by the ability to deal with interactions as well as to uncover the phenomena of spin-charge separation. In the second chapter a new paradigm of phases is proposed and investigated that incorporates both symmetry broken phases and symmetry-protected topological phases. Through exact-solvable models bond spin density wave(BSDW) states are proposed as candidates for this new paradigm, which are $\ZZ_2$ symmetry breaking due to spontaneous dimerization and yet each is topological nontrivial with edge zero modes of fractional fermions. More general lattice models are constructed, and it is shown that BSDW exists in a considerable regime of parameters for a family of lattice models, from both mean-field analysis and bosonization. In the third chapter, we give an effective field description for spin-charge separated edge modes consisting of both Majorana modes and fractional fermions, and demonstrate how to harvest both simultaneously in a spinless fermionic ladder with particle-hole symmetry and single-chain fermion parity. Further, the idea of spin-charge separated edge modes is applied to reinterpret the prominent Haldane phase of spin-1 chain in its equivalent spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ fermionic model. In contrast to the above two theoretically oriented topics that aim to add variety to topological phases, the third topic establishes a bridge between abstract concepts for topological systems to remarkable features that can be detected in experiments. The last chapter reveals how topological charges for topological Fermi points, through exhibiting exotic quasiparticle interference in the presence of impurities, could be visualized in STS measurements. The generalized joint density of states(GJDOS) is applied to address effects from the geometry of band dispersion and topological charges separately. Both analytical results and numerical simulation suggest distinct and robust quasiparticle interference features as indicators for topological charges that can be accessed by FT-STS experiments.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectTopological dynamics
Fermions
Matter - Properties
Dept/ProgramPhysics
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/238353
HKU Library Item IDb5824364

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Danbo-
dc.contributor.author张旦波-
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-10T07:29:34Z-
dc.date.available2017-02-10T07:29:34Z-
dc.date.issued2016-
dc.identifier.citationZhang, D. [张旦波]. (2016). Theoretical studies of some topological systems. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/238353-
dc.description.abstractUnderstanding the interplay between symmetries and phases lies at the heart of characterizing states of matter. The conventional Landau's paradigm associates local ordered states with symmetry breaking, but this paradigm fails to include gapped topological phases, which can only be distinguished by the global topological invariant and the present of gapless edge modes at open boundaries. In this thesis, variety of states of matter is enriched from two aspects: a new paradigm of phases that incorporates both symmetry broken phase and topological phase, and exotic topological phases that are realized in different degree of freedoms of the same system. The two aspects are explored by studying corresponding one dimensional fermionic models. Besides gapped phases, exotic quasiparticle interferences of gapless topological systems are also investigated. The first chapter serves as a theoretical basis for the next two chapters by giving an introduction to topological phases in one dimension. In particular, a bosonization method is introduced to describe topological degeneracy and edge zero modes, which is favoured by the ability to deal with interactions as well as to uncover the phenomena of spin-charge separation. In the second chapter a new paradigm of phases is proposed and investigated that incorporates both symmetry broken phases and symmetry-protected topological phases. Through exact-solvable models bond spin density wave(BSDW) states are proposed as candidates for this new paradigm, which are $\ZZ_2$ symmetry breaking due to spontaneous dimerization and yet each is topological nontrivial with edge zero modes of fractional fermions. More general lattice models are constructed, and it is shown that BSDW exists in a considerable regime of parameters for a family of lattice models, from both mean-field analysis and bosonization. In the third chapter, we give an effective field description for spin-charge separated edge modes consisting of both Majorana modes and fractional fermions, and demonstrate how to harvest both simultaneously in a spinless fermionic ladder with particle-hole symmetry and single-chain fermion parity. Further, the idea of spin-charge separated edge modes is applied to reinterpret the prominent Haldane phase of spin-1 chain in its equivalent spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ fermionic model. In contrast to the above two theoretically oriented topics that aim to add variety to topological phases, the third topic establishes a bridge between abstract concepts for topological systems to remarkable features that can be detected in experiments. The last chapter reveals how topological charges for topological Fermi points, through exhibiting exotic quasiparticle interference in the presence of impurities, could be visualized in STS measurements. The generalized joint density of states(GJDOS) is applied to address effects from the geometry of band dispersion and topological charges separately. Both analytical results and numerical simulation suggest distinct and robust quasiparticle interference features as indicators for topological charges that can be accessed by FT-STS experiments. -
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshTopological dynamics-
dc.subject.lcshFermions-
dc.subject.lcshMatter - Properties-
dc.titleTheoretical studies of some topological systems-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5824364-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysics-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-

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