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postgraduate thesis: Control and filtering of quantum systems
Title  Control and filtering of quantum systems 

Authors  
Issue Date  2015 
Publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) 
Citation  Fu, S. [付世州]. (2015). Control and filtering of quantum systems. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5570788 
Abstract  This thesis is concerned with the control and filtering problems for quantum systems. Two kinds of control problems are considered for a class of quantum systems: optimal control and trajectory tracking control. Filtering of a class of linear quantum systems is also investigated.
For the optimal control of quantum systems, the system in question evolves on a manifold inR^3 and is modeled as a bilinear control form whose states are represented as coherence vectors. An associated matrix Lie group system with state space S O(3) is introduced in order to facilitate solving the given problem. The controllability as well as the reachable set of the system is analyzed in detail. The maximum principle is applied to the optimal control for systems evolving on the Lie group of special orthogonal matrices of dimension 3, with cost that is quadratic in the control input. Controlling the evolutions of coherence vector is equivalent to controlling the states of an associated matrix Lie group system. Thus, the optimal control problem for single spin1/2 systems can be transformed to steer state of the matrix Lie group system from the identity matrix to a final matrix corresponding to a target state of single spin1/2 systems in an optimal fashion. The obtained result is employed to perform a reversible logic quantum operation NOT on single spin1/2 systems. Explicit expressions for the optimal control are given which are linked to the initial state of the system. The main contribution of the result is to extend the existing result to a larger class of systems, generalizing existing wavefunctionbased results to single spin1/2 systems whose states are represented by density matrices such that it allows the inclusion of mixed states.
For the tracking control problem of closed single spin1/2 quantum ensembles, based on the Liouvillevon Neumann equation, mathematical model of dynamics for single spin1/2 quantum ensembles are formulated as a bilinear form with states evolving on Bloch sphere. For a typical setting in NMR, one in general would not cancel the applied electromagnetic field along a specified direction, thus leading to the dynamics in a plane perpendicular to that direction on the Bloch sphere. One natural question arises that how can one design a feedback controller such that given an initial condition for quantum ensembles, the system evolutions can be steered to the predetermined trajectory. An associated matrix Lie group differential equation describing transfers from the initial state being an identity matrix is naturally introduced. The tracking problem for the system of interest is transformed to a stabilization problem such that the control techniques are able to be used. A distance function as well as a distance vector defined on the Lie group SO(3) are introduced, which can be used to construct a Lyapunov function to deal with the tracking problem. In order to deal with the tracking problem, the Lyapunovbased feedback design method is employed to obtain the feedback control such that the dynamics of system can converge to the reference trajectory.
For filtering of quantum systems, the filter problem of a class of linear quantum stochastic systems with quantum noise is investigated. The quantum system model is first analyzed, then the necessary conditions of nondemolition are obtained by applying the observation principle. The relations between the input and output noise are necessary for the nondemolition measurement of the quantum output channels. Given prescribed quantum system, the filter of the system is derived using those necessary conditions. 
Degree  Doctor of Philosophy 
Subject  Quantum systems  Automatic control Control theory 
Dept/Program  Mechanical Engineering 
Persistent Identifier  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/220002 
HKU Library Item ID  b5570788 
DC Field  Value  Language 

dc.contributor.author  Fu, Shizhou   
dc.contributor.author  付世州   
dc.date.accessioned  20151008T23:12:19Z   
dc.date.available  20151008T23:12:19Z   
dc.date.issued  2015   
dc.identifier.citation  Fu, S. [付世州]. (2015). Control and filtering of quantum systems. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5570788   
dc.identifier.uri  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/220002   
dc.description.abstract  This thesis is concerned with the control and filtering problems for quantum systems. Two kinds of control problems are considered for a class of quantum systems: optimal control and trajectory tracking control. Filtering of a class of linear quantum systems is also investigated. For the optimal control of quantum systems, the system in question evolves on a manifold inR^3 and is modeled as a bilinear control form whose states are represented as coherence vectors. An associated matrix Lie group system with state space S O(3) is introduced in order to facilitate solving the given problem. The controllability as well as the reachable set of the system is analyzed in detail. The maximum principle is applied to the optimal control for systems evolving on the Lie group of special orthogonal matrices of dimension 3, with cost that is quadratic in the control input. Controlling the evolutions of coherence vector is equivalent to controlling the states of an associated matrix Lie group system. Thus, the optimal control problem for single spin1/2 systems can be transformed to steer state of the matrix Lie group system from the identity matrix to a final matrix corresponding to a target state of single spin1/2 systems in an optimal fashion. The obtained result is employed to perform a reversible logic quantum operation NOT on single spin1/2 systems. Explicit expressions for the optimal control are given which are linked to the initial state of the system. The main contribution of the result is to extend the existing result to a larger class of systems, generalizing existing wavefunctionbased results to single spin1/2 systems whose states are represented by density matrices such that it allows the inclusion of mixed states. For the tracking control problem of closed single spin1/2 quantum ensembles, based on the Liouvillevon Neumann equation, mathematical model of dynamics for single spin1/2 quantum ensembles are formulated as a bilinear form with states evolving on Bloch sphere. For a typical setting in NMR, one in general would not cancel the applied electromagnetic field along a specified direction, thus leading to the dynamics in a plane perpendicular to that direction on the Bloch sphere. One natural question arises that how can one design a feedback controller such that given an initial condition for quantum ensembles, the system evolutions can be steered to the predetermined trajectory. An associated matrix Lie group differential equation describing transfers from the initial state being an identity matrix is naturally introduced. The tracking problem for the system of interest is transformed to a stabilization problem such that the control techniques are able to be used. A distance function as well as a distance vector defined on the Lie group SO(3) are introduced, which can be used to construct a Lyapunov function to deal with the tracking problem. In order to deal with the tracking problem, the Lyapunovbased feedback design method is employed to obtain the feedback control such that the dynamics of system can converge to the reference trajectory. For filtering of quantum systems, the filter problem of a class of linear quantum stochastic systems with quantum noise is investigated. The quantum system model is first analyzed, then the necessary conditions of nondemolition are obtained by applying the observation principle. The relations between the input and output noise are necessary for the nondemolition measurement of the quantum output channels. Given prescribed quantum system, the filter of the system is derived using those necessary conditions.   
dc.language  eng   
dc.publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)   
dc.relation.ispartof  HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)   
dc.rights  The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.   
dc.rights  Creative Commons: AttributionNonCommerical 3.0 Hong Kong License   
dc.subject.lcsh  Quantum systems  Automatic control   
dc.subject.lcsh  Control theory   
dc.title  Control and filtering of quantum systems   
dc.type  PG_Thesis   
dc.identifier.hkul  b5570788   
dc.description.thesisname  Doctor of Philosophy   
dc.description.thesislevel  Doctoral   
dc.description.thesisdiscipline  Mechanical Engineering   
dc.description.nature  published_or_final_version   