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postgraduate thesis: Up-regulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1) by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells after hypoxic challenge is not involved in the regulation of VEGF secretion

TitleUp-regulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1) by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells after hypoxic challenge is not involved in the regulation of VEGF secretion
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Zheng, F. [郑斐晖]. (2014). Up-regulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1) by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells after hypoxic challenge is not involved in the regulation of VEGF secretion. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5388031
AbstractChoroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a leading threat to severe vision loss, particularly in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In CNV, newly formed blood vessels sprout from the choroid to the sub-retinal space, where leakage and bleeding of the abnormal vessels lead to photoreceptor death and subsequent vision loss. It is believed that CNV is mediated by growth factors (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor {VEGF}) produced by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) under pathological states (e.g. hypoxia). Current treatments for CNV aiming at countering VEGF only help decrease leakage and inhibit formation of CNV, but none of them is curative and the recurrence rate remains high. In order to find other more powerful potential therapeutic targets, the regulations of VEGF signaling in the pathophysiology of CNV is the focus of numerous translational investigations. Previously, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a crucial transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia, is identified as the master transcriptional factor controlling VEGF expression in the RPE promoting CNV. Alpha-enolase (ENO1), a key glycolytic enzyme, is known to be over expressed in several types of carcinomas also under the regulation of HIF-1. ENO1 has been reported to be closely associated with cancer progression, angiogenesis, and venous invasion. The molecular events of ENO1 in the pathogenesis of promoting angiogenesis are of interest but still barely understood. Recently, the association of ENO1 antibodies with retina has been seen in patients with AMD. We hypothesize that ENO1 expression in the RPE may play a role in the development of CNV, participating in the regulation of VEGF. Hypoxia is an important pathological condition in the formation of CNV. Here, we first determined ENO1 expression and cell death in a human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, under cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia or anoxia (95% N2, 5% CO2). To further investigate the regulation of ENO1 in CNV, HIF-1α-diminished RPE cells were generated using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the change of ENO1 expression in response to hypoxic injury was determined. Upon 24 hr of treatment with CoCl2-induced hypoxia or anoxia, the expression of ENO1 and VEGF increased significantly along with HIF-1α in ARPE-19 cells, both of which could in turn be significantly down-regulated by HIF-1α siRNA. Interestingly, cell death remained low in ARPE-19 cells, even after 24 hr of CoCl2-induced hypoxia or anoxia. To further study the role of ENO1 in CNV, we started by investigating the relationship between ENO1 and VEGF. SiRNA was used to knock down the expression of ENO1 in ARPE-19 cells. Upon transfection with the siRNA, ENO1 expression was successfully down-regulated when treated with CoCl2-induced hypoxia. However, VEGF secretions from the ENO1-diminished ARPE-19 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxia remained unchanged. Double knockdown of ENO1 together with HIF-1α by siRNA also did not help to further suppress VEGF secretion in the hypoxic ARPE-19 cells. Hence, ENO1 was demonstrated to be activated and up-regulated by HIF-1 in RPE cells responding to hypoxia, suggesting a potential role of ENO1 in favoring the formation of CNV, but not through influencing VEGF secretion.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectAnoxemia
Retinal degeneration
Neovascularization
Choroid - Diseases
Vascular endothelial growth factors
Dept/ProgramOphthalmology
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208585

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Feihui-
dc.contributor.author郑斐晖-
dc.date.accessioned2015-03-13T01:44:02Z-
dc.date.available2015-03-13T01:44:02Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationZheng, F. [郑斐晖]. (2014). Up-regulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1) by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells after hypoxic challenge is not involved in the regulation of VEGF secretion. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5388031-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208585-
dc.description.abstractChoroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a leading threat to severe vision loss, particularly in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In CNV, newly formed blood vessels sprout from the choroid to the sub-retinal space, where leakage and bleeding of the abnormal vessels lead to photoreceptor death and subsequent vision loss. It is believed that CNV is mediated by growth factors (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor {VEGF}) produced by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) under pathological states (e.g. hypoxia). Current treatments for CNV aiming at countering VEGF only help decrease leakage and inhibit formation of CNV, but none of them is curative and the recurrence rate remains high. In order to find other more powerful potential therapeutic targets, the regulations of VEGF signaling in the pathophysiology of CNV is the focus of numerous translational investigations. Previously, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a crucial transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia, is identified as the master transcriptional factor controlling VEGF expression in the RPE promoting CNV. Alpha-enolase (ENO1), a key glycolytic enzyme, is known to be over expressed in several types of carcinomas also under the regulation of HIF-1. ENO1 has been reported to be closely associated with cancer progression, angiogenesis, and venous invasion. The molecular events of ENO1 in the pathogenesis of promoting angiogenesis are of interest but still barely understood. Recently, the association of ENO1 antibodies with retina has been seen in patients with AMD. We hypothesize that ENO1 expression in the RPE may play a role in the development of CNV, participating in the regulation of VEGF. Hypoxia is an important pathological condition in the formation of CNV. Here, we first determined ENO1 expression and cell death in a human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, under cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia or anoxia (95% N2, 5% CO2). To further investigate the regulation of ENO1 in CNV, HIF-1α-diminished RPE cells were generated using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the change of ENO1 expression in response to hypoxic injury was determined. Upon 24 hr of treatment with CoCl2-induced hypoxia or anoxia, the expression of ENO1 and VEGF increased significantly along with HIF-1α in ARPE-19 cells, both of which could in turn be significantly down-regulated by HIF-1α siRNA. Interestingly, cell death remained low in ARPE-19 cells, even after 24 hr of CoCl2-induced hypoxia or anoxia. To further study the role of ENO1 in CNV, we started by investigating the relationship between ENO1 and VEGF. SiRNA was used to knock down the expression of ENO1 in ARPE-19 cells. Upon transfection with the siRNA, ENO1 expression was successfully down-regulated when treated with CoCl2-induced hypoxia. However, VEGF secretions from the ENO1-diminished ARPE-19 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxia remained unchanged. Double knockdown of ENO1 together with HIF-1α by siRNA also did not help to further suppress VEGF secretion in the hypoxic ARPE-19 cells. Hence, ENO1 was demonstrated to be activated and up-regulated by HIF-1 in RPE cells responding to hypoxia, suggesting a potential role of ENO1 in favoring the formation of CNV, but not through influencing VEGF secretion.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshAnoxemia-
dc.subject.lcshRetinal degeneration-
dc.subject.lcshNeovascularization-
dc.subject.lcshChoroid - Diseases-
dc.subject.lcshVascular endothelial growth factors-
dc.titleUp-regulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1) by HIF-1α in retinal pigment epithelial cells after hypoxic challenge is not involved in the regulation of VEGF secretion-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5388031-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineOphthalmology-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5388031-

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