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postgraduate thesis: HIV-1 Tat induced immune responses and its effect on opportunistic infections

TitleHIV-1 Tat induced immune responses and its effect on opportunistic infections
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Li, CBChan, GCF
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Pong, C. [龐智謙]. (2014). HIV-1 Tat induced immune responses and its effect on opportunistic infections. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5334861
AbstractAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major problem in our current society. There are over 35 million of the population that are currently living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the number of HIV-infected patients are still rising every year in spite of our efforts to control it. Furthermore, within the AIDS affected population, opportunistic infection is a major cause of complications and is the number one cause of death. The HIV trans-activator (Tat) protein plays a major role in the AIDS pathogenesis. HIV-1 Tat is known to cause dysregulation of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in AIDS patients. In this study we recognized a proto-oncogene, c-Myc, could regulate the cytokine dysregulation caused by HIV-1 Tat in primary blood monocyte derived macrophages (PBMac). By knocking down the expression of c-Myc with gene specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that c-Myc may be critical for the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. HIV-1 Tat was subsequently found to regulate the expression of c-Myc via the activation of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, c-Myc regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was demonstrated to have a role in AIDS related opportunistic infections. HIV-1 Tat was shown to increase the intracellular growth of Mycobacteria avium complex (MAC) within PBMac. This increase in MAC growth was in turn found to be regulated by TNF-α expression controlled by c-Myc. HIV-1 Tat was also demonstrated to induce the expression of RIG-I, a common pattern recognition receptor of double stranded RNA viruses, in PBMac. RIG-I is known to activate the viral immune responses such as the type-I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways. This induction of RIG-I by HIV-1 Tat was found to be regulated by c-Myc, as well as through other signalling kinases such as p38 MAPK and PKR. Tat induction of RIG-I ultimately led to the induction of IFN-α2 and IFN-β through the expression and nuclear translocation of the interferon regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7). This alteration in type-I IFN expression regulated by HIV-1 Tat and RIG-I was also found to play a role against AIDS related opportunistic infections. HIV-1 Tat is known to increase the infectivity of Kaposi’s sarcoma-related herpesvirus (KSHV), a common opportunistic viral infection. We were able to demonstrate that this increase in KSHV infectivity was regulated by RIG-I and type-I IFN induced by HIV-1 Tat. Lastly, this study also demonstrated how HIV-1 Tat was able to manipulate the expression of IL-8 induced by KSHV in PBMac. HIV-1 Tat was able to mediate the production of IL-8 induced by KSHV by altering the phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK and the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1). Taken together, the results of this study showed how c-Myc and RIG-I may be able to play critical roles in HIV-1 Tat induced cytokine dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of these pathways is further demonstrated in their roles in regulating the immune responses against opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectHIV infections
Viral proteins
Dept/ProgramPaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/207196

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorLi, CB-
dc.contributor.advisorChan, GCF-
dc.contributor.authorPong, Chi-him-
dc.contributor.author龐智謙-
dc.date.accessioned2014-12-18T23:17:54Z-
dc.date.available2014-12-18T23:17:54Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationPong, C. [龐智謙]. (2014). HIV-1 Tat induced immune responses and its effect on opportunistic infections. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5334861-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/207196-
dc.description.abstractAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major problem in our current society. There are over 35 million of the population that are currently living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the number of HIV-infected patients are still rising every year in spite of our efforts to control it. Furthermore, within the AIDS affected population, opportunistic infection is a major cause of complications and is the number one cause of death. The HIV trans-activator (Tat) protein plays a major role in the AIDS pathogenesis. HIV-1 Tat is known to cause dysregulation of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in AIDS patients. In this study we recognized a proto-oncogene, c-Myc, could regulate the cytokine dysregulation caused by HIV-1 Tat in primary blood monocyte derived macrophages (PBMac). By knocking down the expression of c-Myc with gene specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that c-Myc may be critical for the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. HIV-1 Tat was subsequently found to regulate the expression of c-Myc via the activation of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, c-Myc regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was demonstrated to have a role in AIDS related opportunistic infections. HIV-1 Tat was shown to increase the intracellular growth of Mycobacteria avium complex (MAC) within PBMac. This increase in MAC growth was in turn found to be regulated by TNF-α expression controlled by c-Myc. HIV-1 Tat was also demonstrated to induce the expression of RIG-I, a common pattern recognition receptor of double stranded RNA viruses, in PBMac. RIG-I is known to activate the viral immune responses such as the type-I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways. This induction of RIG-I by HIV-1 Tat was found to be regulated by c-Myc, as well as through other signalling kinases such as p38 MAPK and PKR. Tat induction of RIG-I ultimately led to the induction of IFN-α2 and IFN-β through the expression and nuclear translocation of the interferon regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7). This alteration in type-I IFN expression regulated by HIV-1 Tat and RIG-I was also found to play a role against AIDS related opportunistic infections. HIV-1 Tat is known to increase the infectivity of Kaposi’s sarcoma-related herpesvirus (KSHV), a common opportunistic viral infection. We were able to demonstrate that this increase in KSHV infectivity was regulated by RIG-I and type-I IFN induced by HIV-1 Tat. Lastly, this study also demonstrated how HIV-1 Tat was able to manipulate the expression of IL-8 induced by KSHV in PBMac. HIV-1 Tat was able to mediate the production of IL-8 induced by KSHV by altering the phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK and the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1). Taken together, the results of this study showed how c-Myc and RIG-I may be able to play critical roles in HIV-1 Tat induced cytokine dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of these pathways is further demonstrated in their roles in regulating the immune responses against opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshHIV infections-
dc.subject.lcshViral proteins-
dc.titleHIV-1 Tat induced immune responses and its effect on opportunistic infections-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5334861-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5334861-

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