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postgraduate thesis: Molecular evolution of cryptochrome (CRY) and PAS-containing proteins in eukaryotic circadian clock

TitleMolecular evolution of cryptochrome (CRY) and PAS-containing proteins in eukaryotic circadian clock
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Dvornyk, V
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Mei, Q. [梅启明]. (2014). Molecular evolution of cryptochrome (CRY) and PAS-containing proteins in eukaryotic circadian clock. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5204915
AbstractCircadian rhythmsare biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes display oscillations of oughly 24-hour, which existing in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Circadian rhythms improve fitness of organisms in both constant and changing environments. The cryptochrome (CRY)and PAS-containing proteins are light sensors and key elements of the circadian system in eukaryotic organisms. Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins which perform distinct physiological functions. Photolyases are evolutionarily ancient enzymes that activated by light and repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Although cryptochromes share structural similarity with the DNA photolyases, they lack the DNA repair activity. CRYs are key elements of mammal circadian system, and play roles in light sensing in insects and plants to entrain circadian rhythms. The PAS domains are widely distributed in proteins across all kingdoms of life and act as signal modules. They are common in photoreceptors and transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic circadian clock components including bHLH-PAS proteins (BMAL, CYC,CLK and NPAS2) and PER in animals, PHY and ZTL in plants, WC-1, 2and VVD in fungi. They are mainly involved in protein-protein interaction and light sensing functions. The CRY/PHR superfamily consists of 7 major subfamilies: CPD class I and CPD class II PHRs, (6-4) PHR, CRY-DASH, plant PHR2, plant CRY and animal CRY. Although the superfamily evolved primarily under strong purifying selection (average ω = 0.0178), it experienced strong episodic positive selection at some periods of evolution. The level of variation is subfamily-and domain-specific. The homologs with apparent circadian functions (i.e., plant and animal CRY) are significantly more conserved than the other photolyases. Photolyases were lost in eukaryotic groups like placental mammals, suggesting that natural selection apparently became weaker in the late stage of evolutionary history. The phylogenetic trees of fish Cry features two major clusters, which correspond to Cry1and Cry2. Teleost species possess extra copies of Cry1 due to fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD), and formed 3 clades of Cry1. Clade1B of Cry1(π= 0.129 ±0.062) is more conserved than the other paralogs (πrange from 0.173to 0.195). Test of positive selection revealed that fish cryptochromes evolved under strong purifying selection (average ω= 0.0066).Different fishes preserved different Cry duplicates that associated with reciprocal gene loss, thus generated the diverse circadian molecular mechanisms. The level of DNA variation in the PAS-containing proteins appears to be subfamily-specific. The animal PAS-containing homologs are more polymorphic than the plant and fungal homologs. Although the whole superfamily evolved primarily under strong purifying selection (average ω range from 0.0030to 0.1164), it experienced strong positive selection at some periods of the evolution. Although the PAS domains from different proteins vary in sequence and length, they maintain a fairly conserved 3D structure. The 3D fold of PAS domains is determined by only 8 conserved residues which shared by all subfamilies. The evolutionary time estimates showed that plant and animal Cry, WC-1& 2, bHLH-PAS proteins and Per originated in the Neoproterozoic Era (~1000 –542 Mya), plant Phy and ZTL evolved in the Paleozoic (541 –252 Mya), which might be a result of adaptation to the global climate and light regime changes.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectCircadian rhythms
Cryptochrome
Transcription factors
Dept/ProgramBiological Sciences
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/198833

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorDvornyk, V-
dc.contributor.authorMei, Qiming-
dc.contributor.author梅启明-
dc.date.accessioned2014-07-10T04:10:19Z-
dc.date.available2014-07-10T04:10:19Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationMei, Q. [梅启明]. (2014). Molecular evolution of cryptochrome (CRY) and PAS-containing proteins in eukaryotic circadian clock. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5204915-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/198833-
dc.description.abstractCircadian rhythmsare biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes display oscillations of oughly 24-hour, which existing in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Circadian rhythms improve fitness of organisms in both constant and changing environments. The cryptochrome (CRY)and PAS-containing proteins are light sensors and key elements of the circadian system in eukaryotic organisms. Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins which perform distinct physiological functions. Photolyases are evolutionarily ancient enzymes that activated by light and repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Although cryptochromes share structural similarity with the DNA photolyases, they lack the DNA repair activity. CRYs are key elements of mammal circadian system, and play roles in light sensing in insects and plants to entrain circadian rhythms. The PAS domains are widely distributed in proteins across all kingdoms of life and act as signal modules. They are common in photoreceptors and transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic circadian clock components including bHLH-PAS proteins (BMAL, CYC,CLK and NPAS2) and PER in animals, PHY and ZTL in plants, WC-1, 2and VVD in fungi. They are mainly involved in protein-protein interaction and light sensing functions. The CRY/PHR superfamily consists of 7 major subfamilies: CPD class I and CPD class II PHRs, (6-4) PHR, CRY-DASH, plant PHR2, plant CRY and animal CRY. Although the superfamily evolved primarily under strong purifying selection (average ω = 0.0178), it experienced strong episodic positive selection at some periods of evolution. The level of variation is subfamily-and domain-specific. The homologs with apparent circadian functions (i.e., plant and animal CRY) are significantly more conserved than the other photolyases. Photolyases were lost in eukaryotic groups like placental mammals, suggesting that natural selection apparently became weaker in the late stage of evolutionary history. The phylogenetic trees of fish Cry features two major clusters, which correspond to Cry1and Cry2. Teleost species possess extra copies of Cry1 due to fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD), and formed 3 clades of Cry1. Clade1B of Cry1(π= 0.129 ±0.062) is more conserved than the other paralogs (πrange from 0.173to 0.195). Test of positive selection revealed that fish cryptochromes evolved under strong purifying selection (average ω= 0.0066).Different fishes preserved different Cry duplicates that associated with reciprocal gene loss, thus generated the diverse circadian molecular mechanisms. The level of DNA variation in the PAS-containing proteins appears to be subfamily-specific. The animal PAS-containing homologs are more polymorphic than the plant and fungal homologs. Although the whole superfamily evolved primarily under strong purifying selection (average ω range from 0.0030to 0.1164), it experienced strong positive selection at some periods of the evolution. Although the PAS domains from different proteins vary in sequence and length, they maintain a fairly conserved 3D structure. The 3D fold of PAS domains is determined by only 8 conserved residues which shared by all subfamilies. The evolutionary time estimates showed that plant and animal Cry, WC-1& 2, bHLH-PAS proteins and Per originated in the Neoproterozoic Era (~1000 –542 Mya), plant Phy and ZTL evolved in the Paleozoic (541 –252 Mya), which might be a result of adaptation to the global climate and light regime changes.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshCircadian rhythms-
dc.subject.lcshCryptochrome-
dc.subject.lcshTranscription factors-
dc.titleMolecular evolution of cryptochrome (CRY) and PAS-containing proteins in eukaryotic circadian clock-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5204915-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineBiological Sciences-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5204915-

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