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postgraduate thesis: Calcium-based coating on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for improvement of its stability and transport in environmental remediation

TitleCalcium-based coating on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for improvement of its stability and transport in environmental remediation
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Wei, C. [魏才倢]. (2014). Calcium-based coating on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for improvement of its stability and transport in environmental remediation. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5194795
AbstractZero valent iron (ZVI) has demonstrated its reactivity and effectiveness for in-situ groundwater and soil remediation. The potential of the high reducing activity of nanoscale ZVI (nZVI) for environmental decontamination has attracted more attentions in recent years, as nZVI may be injected with water to the pollution sites for in-situ remediation. However, rapid oxidation and instant agglomeration of nZVI make it difficult for large-scale engineering application. Effort has been made to improve the stability and mobility of nZVI for effective in-situ remediation. In the present study, a novel Ca-based surface coating method has been developed for protection of nZVI and enhancement of its transport in environmental applications. A simple thermal deposition method was employed to coat a Ca-based layer on the surface of micro- or nano- ZVI particles in water or methanol environment. According to microscopic observations, Ca(OH)2 nano-layer was formed on the ZVI surface. A clear core-shell structure was observed for the coated nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles based on the TEM observations. The Ca(OH)2 coating layer had a thickness about one fifth of the nZVI diameter and the Ca to Fe ratio was below 0.2. With the Ca(OH)2 shell, nZVI particles can be effectively protected against corrosion according to the standard natural spray corrosion tests. Thus, the Ca(OH)2 coating layer is able to greatly improve the stability of nZVI during storage, transportation and application. In addition, based on the result of the dissolution tests, the Ca(OH)2 shell could be readily dissolved in water with a low Ca content or a low ionic strength. After dissolution of the Ca(OH)2 shell, the reactivity of nZVI was found to be at the similar level as bare nZVI, which could remove Cr(VI) from water by more than 90% in about 20 min. The pseudo-first order rate constants for Cr(VI) reduction by bare nZVI and nZVI/ Ca(OH)2 after shell dissolution were 0.064 and 0.072 min-1, respectively. Moreover, the Ca(OH)2 coating shell would not only function as a protection layer but also improve the mobility of nZVI particles in in-situ applications. The aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles became considerably slower compared to bare nZVI without the coating. Clean-bed water filtration tests were conducted with sand and glass columns to evaluate the mobility and transport of nZVI in porous media. The results show that bare nZVI in the particle suspension deposited mostly at the top of the filters with little penetration. In comparison, the nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles were able to penetrate through the filter media during the filtration process, and the dark iron particles could fill up the entire filter columns. The penetration rate increased from nearly 0 m/hr for bare nZVI to 0.43 m/hr for nZVI/Ca(OH)2 through the filter media. The Ca-based coating materials are known as of low cost and environmentally friendly. Thus, the new coating method developed in this study provides a cost-effective means for both the protection of nZVI and improvement of its transport and delivery in porous media for environmental decontamination.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectIn situ remediation
Nanostructured materials - Environmental aspects
Dept/ProgramCivil Engineering
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197497

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWei, Caijie-
dc.contributor.author魏才倢-
dc.date.accessioned2014-05-27T23:16:38Z-
dc.date.available2014-05-27T23:16:38Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationWei, C. [魏才倢]. (2014). Calcium-based coating on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for improvement of its stability and transport in environmental remediation. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5194795-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197497-
dc.description.abstractZero valent iron (ZVI) has demonstrated its reactivity and effectiveness for in-situ groundwater and soil remediation. The potential of the high reducing activity of nanoscale ZVI (nZVI) for environmental decontamination has attracted more attentions in recent years, as nZVI may be injected with water to the pollution sites for in-situ remediation. However, rapid oxidation and instant agglomeration of nZVI make it difficult for large-scale engineering application. Effort has been made to improve the stability and mobility of nZVI for effective in-situ remediation. In the present study, a novel Ca-based surface coating method has been developed for protection of nZVI and enhancement of its transport in environmental applications. A simple thermal deposition method was employed to coat a Ca-based layer on the surface of micro- or nano- ZVI particles in water or methanol environment. According to microscopic observations, Ca(OH)2 nano-layer was formed on the ZVI surface. A clear core-shell structure was observed for the coated nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles based on the TEM observations. The Ca(OH)2 coating layer had a thickness about one fifth of the nZVI diameter and the Ca to Fe ratio was below 0.2. With the Ca(OH)2 shell, nZVI particles can be effectively protected against corrosion according to the standard natural spray corrosion tests. Thus, the Ca(OH)2 coating layer is able to greatly improve the stability of nZVI during storage, transportation and application. In addition, based on the result of the dissolution tests, the Ca(OH)2 shell could be readily dissolved in water with a low Ca content or a low ionic strength. After dissolution of the Ca(OH)2 shell, the reactivity of nZVI was found to be at the similar level as bare nZVI, which could remove Cr(VI) from water by more than 90% in about 20 min. The pseudo-first order rate constants for Cr(VI) reduction by bare nZVI and nZVI/ Ca(OH)2 after shell dissolution were 0.064 and 0.072 min-1, respectively. Moreover, the Ca(OH)2 coating shell would not only function as a protection layer but also improve the mobility of nZVI particles in in-situ applications. The aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles became considerably slower compared to bare nZVI without the coating. Clean-bed water filtration tests were conducted with sand and glass columns to evaluate the mobility and transport of nZVI in porous media. The results show that bare nZVI in the particle suspension deposited mostly at the top of the filters with little penetration. In comparison, the nZVI/Ca(OH)2 particles were able to penetrate through the filter media during the filtration process, and the dark iron particles could fill up the entire filter columns. The penetration rate increased from nearly 0 m/hr for bare nZVI to 0.43 m/hr for nZVI/Ca(OH)2 through the filter media. The Ca-based coating materials are known as of low cost and environmentally friendly. Thus, the new coating method developed in this study provides a cost-effective means for both the protection of nZVI and improvement of its transport and delivery in porous media for environmental decontamination.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshIn situ remediation-
dc.subject.lcshNanostructured materials - Environmental aspects-
dc.titleCalcium-based coating on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for improvement of its stability and transport in environmental remediation-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5194795-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineCivil Engineering-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5194795-

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