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postgraduate thesis: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the migratory mechanisms of human mesenchymal stem cells

TitleIntrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the migratory mechanisms of human mesenchymal stem cells
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Yu, J. [于皎乐]. (2012). Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the migratory mechanisms of human mesenchymal stem cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5053360
AbstractThe potential applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely advocated, however, many barriers hinder their clinical utilization. Enhancement of the homing of human MSCs (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge. To overcome this hurdle, the mechanisms responsible for migration and engraftment of hMSCs have to be defined. My study aimed to explore both the underlying mechanisms and means of enhancing the migration of hMSCs. A graft versus host disease (GvHD) injury model and a novel orthotopic neuroblastoma model were established to delineate the distinct property of hMSCs homing towards either injured or cancerous tissues. This highly specific homing process was further revealed to be in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Notably, a novel gene, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), was demonstrated to be actively involved in the hMSCs homing process. hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation significantly enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs. Furthermore, Epac activation directly contributed to the chemotactic response of hMSCs to SDF-1, suggesting that Epac is linked to the stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling cascades. Importantly, the homing of hMSCs towards injured tissues in vivo could be dramatically increased by Epac activation. hMSCs are adherent cells and their migration to distant tissues thus requires detachment into a suspension state. This disruption of cell-extracellular matrix interaction, known as anoikis stress, triggers programmed cell death, leading to a marked decrease in the efficiency of cell trafficking and engraftment. Anoikis stress induced massive cell death has emerged as the major challenge in the application of hMSCs. How some of the hMSCs can overcome this adversity and migrate towards distant destinations remains largely unexplored. It was observed that the surviving hMSCs circumvented anoikis stress by forming self-supporting cellular aggregates. Compared to adherent hMSCs, aggregated-hMSCs had better migratory response to both SDF-1α and SDF-1α analogue (CTCE-0214). Such enhanced migratory effect was proven to be CXCR4-dependent both in vitro and in vivo by using a CXCR4 specific antagonist (AMD3100). Although the viability of hMSCs under anoikis stress dramatically decreased, CTCE-0214 could promote cell survival and facilitate the migration of hMSCs towards injured targets. This phenomenon could be partially explained by the increase in anti-apoptosis effect via up-regulated Bcl-2 expression and autophagy activation under CTCE-0214 treatment. The exact effects of hMSCs on tumor growth and progression have long been controversial. Significant fasten growth and promoted metastasis of neuroblastoma in vivo was observed in hMSCs co-transplanted mice in this study. Reciprocally, hMSCs could not only be recruited by primary tumor, but also be selectively attracted by metastatic loci. This recruitment was significantly reduced when hMSCs were pre-treated with AMD3100, suggesting that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis was a prime mover in this process. In summary, my study demonstrated that the migratory property of hMSCs could be enhanced by novel intrinsic and extrinsic factors using both in vitro and in vivo models. This study provides a new prospective on MSCs biology during the ex vivo manipulation process and I proposed means to overcome some of these hindrance so we can maximize the efficacy of clinical MSCs application in the future.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectMesenchymal stem cells
Cell migration
Dept/ProgramPaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197130

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorYu, Jiaole-
dc.contributor.author于皎乐-
dc.date.accessioned2014-05-12T07:30:22Z-
dc.date.available2014-05-12T07:30:22Z-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationYu, J. [于皎乐]. (2012). Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the migratory mechanisms of human mesenchymal stem cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5053360-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197130-
dc.description.abstractThe potential applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely advocated, however, many barriers hinder their clinical utilization. Enhancement of the homing of human MSCs (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge. To overcome this hurdle, the mechanisms responsible for migration and engraftment of hMSCs have to be defined. My study aimed to explore both the underlying mechanisms and means of enhancing the migration of hMSCs. A graft versus host disease (GvHD) injury model and a novel orthotopic neuroblastoma model were established to delineate the distinct property of hMSCs homing towards either injured or cancerous tissues. This highly specific homing process was further revealed to be in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Notably, a novel gene, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), was demonstrated to be actively involved in the hMSCs homing process. hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation significantly enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs. Furthermore, Epac activation directly contributed to the chemotactic response of hMSCs to SDF-1, suggesting that Epac is linked to the stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling cascades. Importantly, the homing of hMSCs towards injured tissues in vivo could be dramatically increased by Epac activation. hMSCs are adherent cells and their migration to distant tissues thus requires detachment into a suspension state. This disruption of cell-extracellular matrix interaction, known as anoikis stress, triggers programmed cell death, leading to a marked decrease in the efficiency of cell trafficking and engraftment. Anoikis stress induced massive cell death has emerged as the major challenge in the application of hMSCs. How some of the hMSCs can overcome this adversity and migrate towards distant destinations remains largely unexplored. It was observed that the surviving hMSCs circumvented anoikis stress by forming self-supporting cellular aggregates. Compared to adherent hMSCs, aggregated-hMSCs had better migratory response to both SDF-1α and SDF-1α analogue (CTCE-0214). Such enhanced migratory effect was proven to be CXCR4-dependent both in vitro and in vivo by using a CXCR4 specific antagonist (AMD3100). Although the viability of hMSCs under anoikis stress dramatically decreased, CTCE-0214 could promote cell survival and facilitate the migration of hMSCs towards injured targets. This phenomenon could be partially explained by the increase in anti-apoptosis effect via up-regulated Bcl-2 expression and autophagy activation under CTCE-0214 treatment. The exact effects of hMSCs on tumor growth and progression have long been controversial. Significant fasten growth and promoted metastasis of neuroblastoma in vivo was observed in hMSCs co-transplanted mice in this study. Reciprocally, hMSCs could not only be recruited by primary tumor, but also be selectively attracted by metastatic loci. This recruitment was significantly reduced when hMSCs were pre-treated with AMD3100, suggesting that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis was a prime mover in this process. In summary, my study demonstrated that the migratory property of hMSCs could be enhanced by novel intrinsic and extrinsic factors using both in vitro and in vivo models. This study provides a new prospective on MSCs biology during the ex vivo manipulation process and I proposed means to overcome some of these hindrance so we can maximize the efficacy of clinical MSCs application in the future.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshMesenchymal stem cells-
dc.subject.lcshCell migration-
dc.titleIntrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the migratory mechanisms of human mesenchymal stem cells-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5053360-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5053360-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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