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postgraduate thesis: Mixing and deposition of sediment-laden buoyant jets

TitleMixing and deposition of sediment-laden buoyant jets
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Lam, KM
Issue Date2013
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Chan, S. [陳樹寧]. (2013). Mixing and deposition of sediment-laden buoyant jets. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5060572
AbstractSediment-laden turbulent buoyant jets are commonly encountered in the natural and man-made environments. Examples of sediment-laden buoyant jets include volcanic eruptions, deep ocean hydrothermal vents (“black smokers”), ocean dumping of dredged spoils and sludge, and submarine discharge of wastewater effluent. It is important to understand the fluid mechanics of sediment jets for environmental impact assessment, and yet there is currently no general model for predicting the mixing of sediment-laden jets. This study reports a theoretical and experimental investigation the sediment mixing, fall-out and deposition from sediment-laden buoyant jets. It is well known that turbulence generates fluctuations to the particle motion, modulating the particle settling velocity. A general three-dimensional (3D) stochastic particle tracking model is developed to predict the particle settling out and deposition from a sediment-laden jet. Particle velocity fluctuations are modelled by a Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function that accounts for the loitering and trapping of sediment particles in turbulent eddies which results in the reduction of settling velocity. The model is validated against results of independent experimental studies. Consistent with basic experiments using grid-generated turbulence, the model predicts that the apparent settling velocity can be reduced by as much as 30% of the stillwater settling velocity. The mixing and deposition of sediment-laden horizontal momentum jets are studied using laboratory experiments and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. It is shown that there is a significant settling velocity reduction up to about 25-35%, dependent on jet turbulent fluctuations and particle properties. The CFD approach necessitates an ad hoc adjustment/reduction on settling velocity and lacks generality. Using classical solutions of mean velocity, and turbulent fluctuation and dissipation rate profiles derived from CFD solutions, 3D particle tracking model predictions of sediment deposition and concentration profiles are in excellent agreement with measured data over a wide range of jet flow and particle properties. Unlike CFD calculations, the present method does not require any a priori adjustment of particle settling velocity. A general particle tracking model for predicting sediment fall-out and deposition from an arbitrarily inclined buoyant jets in stagnant ambient is successfully developed. The model incorporates the three flow regimes affecting the sediment dynamics in a buoyant jet, namely turbulent jet flow, jet entrainment-induced external flow and surface spreading current. The jet mean flow velocity is determined using a well-validated jet integral model. The external jet-induced irrotational flow field is computed by a distribution of point sinks along the jet trajectory. The surface spreading current is predicted using an integral model accounting for the interfacial shear. The model is validated against experimental data of sediment deposition from vertical and horizontal sediment-laden buoyant jets.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectSediment transport - Mathematical models.
Suspended sediments - Mathematical models.
Waste disposal in the ocean - Mathematical models.
Jets - Fluid dynamics.
Dept/ProgramCivil Engineering
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188746

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorLam, KM-
dc.contributor.authorChan, Shu-ning.-
dc.contributor.author陳樹寧.-
dc.date.accessioned2013-09-08T15:07:53Z-
dc.date.available2013-09-08T15:07:53Z-
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.identifier.citationChan, S. [陳樹寧]. (2013). Mixing and deposition of sediment-laden buoyant jets. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5060572-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188746-
dc.description.abstractSediment-laden turbulent buoyant jets are commonly encountered in the natural and man-made environments. Examples of sediment-laden buoyant jets include volcanic eruptions, deep ocean hydrothermal vents (“black smokers”), ocean dumping of dredged spoils and sludge, and submarine discharge of wastewater effluent. It is important to understand the fluid mechanics of sediment jets for environmental impact assessment, and yet there is currently no general model for predicting the mixing of sediment-laden jets. This study reports a theoretical and experimental investigation the sediment mixing, fall-out and deposition from sediment-laden buoyant jets. It is well known that turbulence generates fluctuations to the particle motion, modulating the particle settling velocity. A general three-dimensional (3D) stochastic particle tracking model is developed to predict the particle settling out and deposition from a sediment-laden jet. Particle velocity fluctuations are modelled by a Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function that accounts for the loitering and trapping of sediment particles in turbulent eddies which results in the reduction of settling velocity. The model is validated against results of independent experimental studies. Consistent with basic experiments using grid-generated turbulence, the model predicts that the apparent settling velocity can be reduced by as much as 30% of the stillwater settling velocity. The mixing and deposition of sediment-laden horizontal momentum jets are studied using laboratory experiments and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. It is shown that there is a significant settling velocity reduction up to about 25-35%, dependent on jet turbulent fluctuations and particle properties. The CFD approach necessitates an ad hoc adjustment/reduction on settling velocity and lacks generality. Using classical solutions of mean velocity, and turbulent fluctuation and dissipation rate profiles derived from CFD solutions, 3D particle tracking model predictions of sediment deposition and concentration profiles are in excellent agreement with measured data over a wide range of jet flow and particle properties. Unlike CFD calculations, the present method does not require any a priori adjustment of particle settling velocity. A general particle tracking model for predicting sediment fall-out and deposition from an arbitrarily inclined buoyant jets in stagnant ambient is successfully developed. The model incorporates the three flow regimes affecting the sediment dynamics in a buoyant jet, namely turbulent jet flow, jet entrainment-induced external flow and surface spreading current. The jet mean flow velocity is determined using a well-validated jet integral model. The external jet-induced irrotational flow field is computed by a distribution of point sinks along the jet trajectory. The surface spreading current is predicted using an integral model accounting for the interfacial shear. The model is validated against experimental data of sediment deposition from vertical and horizontal sediment-laden buoyant jets.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B50605720-
dc.subject.lcshSediment transport - Mathematical models.-
dc.subject.lcshSuspended sediments - Mathematical models.-
dc.subject.lcshWaste disposal in the ocean - Mathematical models.-
dc.subject.lcshJets - Fluid dynamics.-
dc.titleMixing and deposition of sediment-laden buoyant jets-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5060572-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineCivil Engineering-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5060572-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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