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postgraduate thesis: Functional coatings on Ti-6A1-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications

TitleFunctional coatings on Ti-6A1-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications
Authors
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Lee, W. [李永祥]. (2011). Functional coatings on Ti-6A1-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4715052
AbstractDue to its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been extensively used in the medical field, especially as a material for hard tissue replacement. Owing to the unique shape memory and superelastic properties, NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA, with 50.8 at.% of Ni) has been investigated for load-bearing applications in orthopedics and dentistry. Since the longevity of current metal implants is approximately 10 to 15 years, many patients need to have revision surgeries in their lifetime. Therefore, there is great interest in the long-term stability, biocompatibility, bioactivity and other properties of Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA implants. Implant-associated infections also pose serious threat to the success of metal implants. The goal of this project was to investigate several low-temperature surface modification techniques, including anodization and electrochemical deposition, and formulate coatings for potential clinical applications. Accordingly, several types of coatings were synthesized on Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA substrates. Various aspects of the coatings, such as morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity, phase and bioactivity, were analyzed. Firstly, a systematic study on the formation of titania nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V by anodization was performed. Anodizing voltage and time were varied for comparisons. A dense and compact titania nanotube layer was synthesized on Ti-6Al-4V by anodizing at 25 V for 20 min. The titania nanotubes formed were rutile. After annealing at 500oC for 1 h, the titania nanotubes became anatase. The anatase phase exhibited better wettability than the rutile phase. Secondly, dense and compact apatite coatings were formed on NiTi SMA samples through electrochemical deposition using mainly double-strength simulated body fluid (2SBF) as the electrolyte. The deposition conditions were varied and apatite coating characteristics studied. With the inclusion of collagen molecules (0.1 mg/ml) in the electrolyte (2SBFC), apatite/collagen composite coatings were fabricated. Collagen fibrils were not only observed on the surface of composite coatings but also were embedded inside in the coatings and at the coating-substrate interface. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the apatite crystals in apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings were calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite. Apatite/collagen composite coatings exhibited excellent hydrophilicity, whereas apatite coatings displayed hydrophobic surfaces. Finally, gentamicin-loaded, tobramycin-loaded, and vancomycin-loaded apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings were synthesized on NiTi SMA samples through electrochemical deposition using different drug concentrations in the electrolytes. A comparative study of apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings as drug delivery vehicles were conducted. Different aspects of antibiotic-loaded coatings (surface characteristics, chemical composition, wettability, etc.) and in vitro release behaviour were investigated. The antibiotics were physically embedded in coatings during coating formation. Upon sample soaking in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the release profiles established for antibiotic-loaded coatings demonstrated different levels of initial burst release and subsequent steady release characteristics. Apatite coatings and apatite/collagen coatings displayed preferential incorporation of specific antibiotics. For instance, apatite/collagen coatings showed better vancomycin incorporation than apatite coatings and the incorporation of vancomycin was better than tobramycin for apatite/collagen coatings. Apatite coatings demonstrated better tobramycin incorporation than apatite/collagen composite coatings.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectCoatings.
Titanium alloys.
Nickel-titanium alloys.
Shape memory alloys.
Dept/ProgramMechanical Engineering

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLee, Wing-cheung.-
dc.contributor.author李永祥.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationLee, W. [李永祥]. (2011). Functional coatings on Ti-6A1-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4715052-
dc.description.abstractDue to its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been extensively used in the medical field, especially as a material for hard tissue replacement. Owing to the unique shape memory and superelastic properties, NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA, with 50.8 at.% of Ni) has been investigated for load-bearing applications in orthopedics and dentistry. Since the longevity of current metal implants is approximately 10 to 15 years, many patients need to have revision surgeries in their lifetime. Therefore, there is great interest in the long-term stability, biocompatibility, bioactivity and other properties of Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA implants. Implant-associated infections also pose serious threat to the success of metal implants. The goal of this project was to investigate several low-temperature surface modification techniques, including anodization and electrochemical deposition, and formulate coatings for potential clinical applications. Accordingly, several types of coatings were synthesized on Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA substrates. Various aspects of the coatings, such as morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity, phase and bioactivity, were analyzed. Firstly, a systematic study on the formation of titania nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V by anodization was performed. Anodizing voltage and time were varied for comparisons. A dense and compact titania nanotube layer was synthesized on Ti-6Al-4V by anodizing at 25 V for 20 min. The titania nanotubes formed were rutile. After annealing at 500oC for 1 h, the titania nanotubes became anatase. The anatase phase exhibited better wettability than the rutile phase. Secondly, dense and compact apatite coatings were formed on NiTi SMA samples through electrochemical deposition using mainly double-strength simulated body fluid (2SBF) as the electrolyte. The deposition conditions were varied and apatite coating characteristics studied. With the inclusion of collagen molecules (0.1 mg/ml) in the electrolyte (2SBFC), apatite/collagen composite coatings were fabricated. Collagen fibrils were not only observed on the surface of composite coatings but also were embedded inside in the coatings and at the coating-substrate interface. Results obtained from transmission electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the apatite crystals in apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings were calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite. Apatite/collagen composite coatings exhibited excellent hydrophilicity, whereas apatite coatings displayed hydrophobic surfaces. Finally, gentamicin-loaded, tobramycin-loaded, and vancomycin-loaded apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings were synthesized on NiTi SMA samples through electrochemical deposition using different drug concentrations in the electrolytes. A comparative study of apatite coatings and apatite/collagen composite coatings as drug delivery vehicles were conducted. Different aspects of antibiotic-loaded coatings (surface characteristics, chemical composition, wettability, etc.) and in vitro release behaviour were investigated. The antibiotics were physically embedded in coatings during coating formation. Upon sample soaking in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the release profiles established for antibiotic-loaded coatings demonstrated different levels of initial burst release and subsequent steady release characteristics. Apatite coatings and apatite/collagen coatings displayed preferential incorporation of specific antibiotics. For instance, apatite/collagen coatings showed better vancomycin incorporation than apatite coatings and the incorporation of vancomycin was better than tobramycin for apatite/collagen coatings. Apatite coatings demonstrated better tobramycin incorporation than apatite/collagen composite coatings.-
dc.languageina-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B4715052X-
dc.subject.lcshCoatings.-
dc.subject.lcshTitanium alloys.-
dc.subject.lcshNickel-titanium alloys.-
dc.subject.lcshShape memory alloys.-
dc.titleFunctional coatings on Ti-6A1-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4715052-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMechanical Engineering-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4715052-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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