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postgraduate thesis: Effect of statins on prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Asian population: a systematic review ofrandomized, controlled trials

TitleEffect of statins on prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Asian population: a systematic review ofrandomized, controlled trials
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Ng, C. [吳晉文]. (2012). Effect of statins on prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Asian population : a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4842506
AbstractBackground Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the worldwide leading cause of death among non-communicable diseases and results in a huge burden of mortality and morbidity. China, a rapidly growing East Asian country, has the world largest population and is facing an increasing burden. Incidence of CVD is lower in China than in Western countries. There are more strokes, especially hemorrhagic strokes, but less coronary heart disease (CHD) in China than in Western countries. Statin, a first-choice drug for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), has been shown to be effective in preventing CVD and is widely used in Western countries. However, it is not known whether the same can be applied to Asian countries, where the incidence of CVD is lower and ischemic events are rarer. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of statin for prevention of CVD in East Asian populations. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching for randomized controlled trials from 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Trial) for prevention of CVD comparing statin with usual care or placebo in East Asian population. Data on CVD events (deaths, CHD and cerebrovascular events, rehospitalization and revascularization) and serum lipid levels (total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)) were extracted. Risk ratios of CVD events and change in serum lipid level were tabulated. The relationship between change in serum lipid level and mortality and incidence of CVD events were also explored. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most of them (9 studies) done in Japan. Overall, statins did not significantly reduce risk of mortality, CHD events, cerebrovascular events, revascularization and rehospitalization due to CHD. However, statins consistently lowered the risk of angina-related rehospitalization by 53% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23% to 71%) and 64% (95% CI 11% to 86%) respectively in 2 studies. There was a consistent reduced risk of composite CVD events by 34% (95% CI 5% to 55%) to 54% (95% CI 6% to 41%) in 4 studies for secondary prevention. In terms of change in lipid levels, TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced by 8% to 31% and 14% to 41% respectively with statin treatment. Change in HDL-C and TG were not consistent across studies. Lowering of TC and LDL-C level was correlated with the reduction in composite CVD and CHD events. Conclusion The use of statins in East Asian populations to prevent CVD may not be as effective as in Western countries, because of the lower baseline risk and different patterns of CVD. As the prevalence of CVD risk factors increases, the incidence of CVD will increase and the pattern of CVD may change, so careful monitoring is needed. More importantly, most of the studies included had small sample sizes, short follow-up periods and/or low methodological quality, which might contribute to the inconsistent findings. A further large-scale randomized controlled trial should be done to confirm the benefits of statins among Chinese.
DegreeMaster of Public Health
SubjectStatins (Cardiovascular agents)
Cardiovascular system - Diseases - Prevention. - Asia
Dept/ProgramPublic Health

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorNg, Chun-man.-
dc.contributor.author吳晉文.-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationNg, C. [吳晉文]. (2012). Effect of statins on prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Asian population : a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4842506-
dc.description.abstractBackground Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the worldwide leading cause of death among non-communicable diseases and results in a huge burden of mortality and morbidity. China, a rapidly growing East Asian country, has the world largest population and is facing an increasing burden. Incidence of CVD is lower in China than in Western countries. There are more strokes, especially hemorrhagic strokes, but less coronary heart disease (CHD) in China than in Western countries. Statin, a first-choice drug for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), has been shown to be effective in preventing CVD and is widely used in Western countries. However, it is not known whether the same can be applied to Asian countries, where the incidence of CVD is lower and ischemic events are rarer. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of statin for prevention of CVD in East Asian populations. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching for randomized controlled trials from 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Trial) for prevention of CVD comparing statin with usual care or placebo in East Asian population. Data on CVD events (deaths, CHD and cerebrovascular events, rehospitalization and revascularization) and serum lipid levels (total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)) were extracted. Risk ratios of CVD events and change in serum lipid level were tabulated. The relationship between change in serum lipid level and mortality and incidence of CVD events were also explored. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most of them (9 studies) done in Japan. Overall, statins did not significantly reduce risk of mortality, CHD events, cerebrovascular events, revascularization and rehospitalization due to CHD. However, statins consistently lowered the risk of angina-related rehospitalization by 53% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23% to 71%) and 64% (95% CI 11% to 86%) respectively in 2 studies. There was a consistent reduced risk of composite CVD events by 34% (95% CI 5% to 55%) to 54% (95% CI 6% to 41%) in 4 studies for secondary prevention. In terms of change in lipid levels, TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced by 8% to 31% and 14% to 41% respectively with statin treatment. Change in HDL-C and TG were not consistent across studies. Lowering of TC and LDL-C level was correlated with the reduction in composite CVD and CHD events. Conclusion The use of statins in East Asian populations to prevent CVD may not be as effective as in Western countries, because of the lower baseline risk and different patterns of CVD. As the prevalence of CVD risk factors increases, the incidence of CVD will increase and the pattern of CVD may change, so careful monitoring is needed. More importantly, most of the studies included had small sample sizes, short follow-up periods and/or low methodological quality, which might contribute to the inconsistent findings. A further large-scale randomized controlled trial should be done to confirm the benefits of statins among Chinese.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B48425060-
dc.subject.lcshStatins (Cardiovascular agents)-
dc.subject.lcshCardiovascular system - Diseases - Prevention. - Asia-
dc.titleEffect of statins on prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Asian population: a systematic review ofrandomized, controlled trials-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4842506-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Public Health-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePublic Health-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4842506-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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