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Article: Effects of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and toxicity of two Alexandrium species from Hong Kong

TitleEffects of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and toxicity of two Alexandrium species from Hong Kong
Authors
KeywordsAlexandrium
Alexandrium catenella
Alexandrium tamarense
Dinophyceae
Issue Date2012
PublisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/hal
Citation
Harmful Algae, 2012, v. 16, p. 89-97 How to Cite?
AbstractThe effects of three nitrogen (N) and two phosphorus (P) inorganic and organic forms on the growth, toxin content and composition, toxin production, and chemical composition of Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium tamarense isolated from coastal waters of Hong Kong were determined. The toxin production rate and cellular toxin content for A. catenella were at least 10-fold higher than A. tamarense. The highest net production rate (R tox) of the two Alexandrium species was generally achieved in the exponential phase. However, the highest cellular toxin content occurred in the stationary phase in all cultures, partly due to the enhancement of cell volume caused by P limitation, except for urea grown cultures where cellular toxin content remained low throughout the growth stage. For A. catenella, NH 4 induced the highest growth rate (0.59d -1), toxin production rate (μ tox, 1.0μmolL -1d -1; R tox, 2.5pmolcell -1d -1) and cellular toxin content (2.8pmolcell -1) among the three nitrogen sources regardless of inorganic and organic P. The form of phosphorus had limited effect on A. catenella. In contrast, the response of A. tamarense to different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus was more complex. NH 4 induced the highest cellular toxin content (445fmolcell -1), while NO 3 yielded the highest toxin production rate (μ tox, 0.71nmolL -1d -1; R tox, 140fmolcell -1d -1) and urea produced the highest growth rate (0.57d -1). For A. tamarense, the highest toxin production rate occurred under organic phosphorus. The relationship between toxin accumulation and the form of nitrogen varied with the phosphorus source. A. catenella cultures grown on NO 3 and NH 4 have about 80-90% C1/2 toxins and 5-15% GTX 1/4 toxins compared to 65-75% C1/2 toxins and 25-35% GTX 1/4 toxins in cultures grown on urea. Our results suggest that during summer when Alexandrium uses NH 4 from local sewage effluent as its preferred nitrogen source, it might become more toxic in combination with episodically occurring P limitation in Hong Kong waters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179283
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.664
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.644
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorXu, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorHo, AYTen_US
dc.contributor.authorHe, Len_US
dc.contributor.authorYin, Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorHung, Cen_US
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Nen_US
dc.contributor.authorLam, PKSen_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, RSSen_US
dc.contributor.authorAnderson, DMen_US
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, PJen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-19T09:53:47Z-
dc.date.available2012-12-19T09:53:47Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationHarmful Algae, 2012, v. 16, p. 89-97en_US
dc.identifier.issn1568-9883en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179283-
dc.description.abstractThe effects of three nitrogen (N) and two phosphorus (P) inorganic and organic forms on the growth, toxin content and composition, toxin production, and chemical composition of Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium tamarense isolated from coastal waters of Hong Kong were determined. The toxin production rate and cellular toxin content for A. catenella were at least 10-fold higher than A. tamarense. The highest net production rate (R tox) of the two Alexandrium species was generally achieved in the exponential phase. However, the highest cellular toxin content occurred in the stationary phase in all cultures, partly due to the enhancement of cell volume caused by P limitation, except for urea grown cultures where cellular toxin content remained low throughout the growth stage. For A. catenella, NH 4 induced the highest growth rate (0.59d -1), toxin production rate (μ tox, 1.0μmolL -1d -1; R tox, 2.5pmolcell -1d -1) and cellular toxin content (2.8pmolcell -1) among the three nitrogen sources regardless of inorganic and organic P. The form of phosphorus had limited effect on A. catenella. In contrast, the response of A. tamarense to different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus was more complex. NH 4 induced the highest cellular toxin content (445fmolcell -1), while NO 3 yielded the highest toxin production rate (μ tox, 0.71nmolL -1d -1; R tox, 140fmolcell -1d -1) and urea produced the highest growth rate (0.57d -1). For A. tamarense, the highest toxin production rate occurred under organic phosphorus. The relationship between toxin accumulation and the form of nitrogen varied with the phosphorus source. A. catenella cultures grown on NO 3 and NH 4 have about 80-90% C1/2 toxins and 5-15% GTX 1/4 toxins compared to 65-75% C1/2 toxins and 25-35% GTX 1/4 toxins in cultures grown on urea. Our results suggest that during summer when Alexandrium uses NH 4 from local sewage effluent as its preferred nitrogen source, it might become more toxic in combination with episodically occurring P limitation in Hong Kong waters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/halen_US
dc.relation.ispartofHarmful Algaeen_US
dc.subjectAlexandriumen_US
dc.subjectAlexandrium catenellaen_US
dc.subjectAlexandrium tamarenseen_US
dc.subjectDinophyceaeen_US
dc.titleEffects of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth and toxicity of two Alexandrium species from Hong Kongen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailXu, J: xujie@ust.hken_US
dc.identifier.emailWu, RSS: rodulfwu@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityWu, RSS=rp01398en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.hal.2012.02.006en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84862779619en_US
dc.identifier.hkuros203332-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-84862779619&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume16en_US
dc.identifier.spage89en_US
dc.identifier.epage97en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000303298600011-
dc.publisher.placeNetherlandsen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHarrison, PJ=9533159800en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAnderson, DM=7410018378en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWu, RSS=7402945079en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLam, PKS=7202365776en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChoi, N=12239088700en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHung, C=13409840400en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYin, K=7101985944en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHe, L=36606176200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHo, AYT=23667369600en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridXu, J=7407002498en_US
dc.identifier.citeulike10384450-

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