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Postgraduate Thesis: Associations among type A and type D personalities, metabolicsyndrome, and anxiety/depression
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TitleAssociations among type A and type D personalities, metabolicsyndrome, and anxiety/depression
 
AuthorsWang, Yijie
王怡洁
 
Issue Date2012
 
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
AbstractBackground Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of metabolic dysfunctions denoting a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The key risk factors include insulin resistance and obesity. In recent decades psychological factors, including Type A personality, Type D personality, anxiety, and depression, have been found to be additional risk factors of metabolic syndrome. As people‘s behaviours and personalities are often influenced by cultural values, it would seem to be necessary to examine the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome within the context of culture. This study specifically examines the issue in the context of Chinese culture. In addition, people with Type A personality who tend to feel impatience or time urgency, anger or hostility, and competitiveness, were reported to be positively associated with anxiety. People with Type D personality who would easily have negative affectivity and social inhibition were reported to be positively associated with anxiety as well as depression. Therefore, anxiety or depression might have an effect on the associations between Type A and Type D personalities. However, to my best knowledge, no previous studies have examined the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. Objective This study examines associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. It includes: 1) validating the Chinese versions of the Type A personality scale (Adolescent/Adult Type A Behaviour Scale, AATABS-3) and Type D personality scale (DS-14); 2) assessing the associations between Type A and Type D personalities with metabolic syndrome; 3) investigating the associations between anxiety/depression and metabolic syndrome; 4) measuring the association between Type A personality and anxiety; 5) testing the association between Type D personality and anxiety, as well as depression; and 6) determining the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a random community sample of 741 adults in Hong Kong recruited by cluster sampling. Participants meeting the screening criteria of metabolic syndrome were offered further physical examination for confirming the diagnosis. Results For the Chinese version AATABS-3 scale (revised-AATABS-3), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) produced an 11-item 3-factor solution. The three factors were: 1) impatience/time urgency; 2) hostility/anger; and 3) competitiveness. The revised-AATABS-3 scale showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach‘s alpha = 0.74). For the Chinese version DS-14 scale (revised-DS-14), EFA provided a 10-item 2-factor solution. The two factors were: negative affectivity and social inhibition. The revised-DS-14 scale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach‘s alpha = 0.90). Gender differences appeared in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. In the total population and female participants, there were no significant associations between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome. However, male participants with Type A personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome. In the total participants, there were no significant associations between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome. However, female participants with Type D personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome; whereas male participants with Type D personality were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome. Anxiety affected the association between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome in males only, whereas it affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. Depression affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. Conclusion and Discussion The revised-AATABS-3 and revised-DS-14 scales showed satisfactory psychometric properties. They might be more convenient and acceptable than the original scales for measuring Type A and Type D personalities in future research. Since EFA was a preliminary method for scale validation, further validation studies for these two scales are needed, for examples, on concurrent and discriminant validity. Gender differences occurred in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. The key findings were: *Type A personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Type D personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in female participants, but it exhibited a protective effect for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Anxiety played a protective effect in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Depression had a protective effect on Type D personality for developing metabolic syndrome in female participants, and it reduced the protective effect of Type D personality for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. The results of this study may give directions to future studies pursuing further investigations on metabolic syndrome, particularly in regard to personality traits, lifestyles, mental health issues, and coping strategies in cultural and social contexts, as well as gender differences related to the endocrine system.
 
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
 
SubjectPersonality.
Metabolic syndrome.
Anxiety.
Depression, Mental.
 
Dept/ProgramSocial Work and Social Administration
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yijie
 
dc.contributor.author王怡洁
 
dc.date.hkucongregation2012
 
dc.date.issued2012
 
dc.description.abstractBackground Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of metabolic dysfunctions denoting a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The key risk factors include insulin resistance and obesity. In recent decades psychological factors, including Type A personality, Type D personality, anxiety, and depression, have been found to be additional risk factors of metabolic syndrome. As people‘s behaviours and personalities are often influenced by cultural values, it would seem to be necessary to examine the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome within the context of culture. This study specifically examines the issue in the context of Chinese culture. In addition, people with Type A personality who tend to feel impatience or time urgency, anger or hostility, and competitiveness, were reported to be positively associated with anxiety. People with Type D personality who would easily have negative affectivity and social inhibition were reported to be positively associated with anxiety as well as depression. Therefore, anxiety or depression might have an effect on the associations between Type A and Type D personalities. However, to my best knowledge, no previous studies have examined the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. Objective This study examines associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. It includes: 1) validating the Chinese versions of the Type A personality scale (Adolescent/Adult Type A Behaviour Scale, AATABS-3) and Type D personality scale (DS-14); 2) assessing the associations between Type A and Type D personalities with metabolic syndrome; 3) investigating the associations between anxiety/depression and metabolic syndrome; 4) measuring the association between Type A personality and anxiety; 5) testing the association between Type D personality and anxiety, as well as depression; and 6) determining the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a random community sample of 741 adults in Hong Kong recruited by cluster sampling. Participants meeting the screening criteria of metabolic syndrome were offered further physical examination for confirming the diagnosis. Results For the Chinese version AATABS-3 scale (revised-AATABS-3), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) produced an 11-item 3-factor solution. The three factors were: 1) impatience/time urgency; 2) hostility/anger; and 3) competitiveness. The revised-AATABS-3 scale showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach‘s alpha = 0.74). For the Chinese version DS-14 scale (revised-DS-14), EFA provided a 10-item 2-factor solution. The two factors were: negative affectivity and social inhibition. The revised-DS-14 scale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach‘s alpha = 0.90). Gender differences appeared in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. In the total population and female participants, there were no significant associations between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome. However, male participants with Type A personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome. In the total participants, there were no significant associations between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome. However, female participants with Type D personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome; whereas male participants with Type D personality were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome. Anxiety affected the association between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome in males only, whereas it affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. Depression affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. Conclusion and Discussion The revised-AATABS-3 and revised-DS-14 scales showed satisfactory psychometric properties. They might be more convenient and acceptable than the original scales for measuring Type A and Type D personalities in future research. Since EFA was a preliminary method for scale validation, further validation studies for these two scales are needed, for examples, on concurrent and discriminant validity. Gender differences occurred in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. The key findings were: *Type A personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Type D personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in female participants, but it exhibited a protective effect for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Anxiety played a protective effect in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome in male participants. *Depression had a protective effect on Type D personality for developing metabolic syndrome in female participants, and it reduced the protective effect of Type D personality for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. The results of this study may give directions to future studies pursuing further investigations on metabolic syndrome, particularly in regard to personality traits, lifestyles, mental health issues, and coping strategies in cultural and social contexts, as well as gender differences related to the endocrine system.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.thesisdisciplineSocial Work and Social Administration
 
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral
 
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy
 
dc.identifier.hkulb4784949
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)
 
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849496
 
dc.subject.lcshPersonality.
 
dc.subject.lcshMetabolic syndrome.
 
dc.subject.lcshAnxiety.
 
dc.subject.lcshDepression, Mental.
 
dc.titleAssociations among type A and type D personalities, metabolicsyndrome, and anxiety/depression
 
dc.typePG_Thesis
 
<?xml encoding="utf-8" version="1.0"?>
<item><contributor.author>Wang, Yijie</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>&#29579;&#24609;&#27905;</contributor.author>
<date.issued>2012</date.issued>
<description.abstract>&#65279;Background 

Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of metabolic dysfunctions denoting a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The key risk factors include insulin resistance and obesity. In recent decades psychological factors, including Type A personality, Type D personality, anxiety, and depression, have been found to be additional risk factors of metabolic syndrome. As people&#8216;s behaviours and personalities are often influenced by cultural values, it would seem to be necessary to examine the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome within the context of culture. This study specifically examines the issue in the context of Chinese culture. 

In addition, people with Type A personality who tend to feel impatience or time urgency, anger or hostility, and competitiveness, were reported to be positively associated with anxiety. People with Type D personality who would easily have negative affectivity and social inhibition were reported to be positively associated with anxiety as well as depression. Therefore, anxiety or depression might have an effect on the associations between Type A and Type D personalities. However, to my best knowledge, no previous studies have examined the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression.



Objective 

This study examines associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. It includes: 1) validating the Chinese versions of the Type A personality scale (Adolescent/Adult Type A Behaviour Scale, AATABS-3) and Type D personality scale (DS-14); 2) assessing the associations between Type A and Type D personalities with metabolic syndrome; 3) investigating the associations between anxiety/depression and metabolic syndrome; 4) measuring the association between Type A personality and anxiety; 5) testing the association between Type D personality and anxiety, as well as depression; and 6) determining the associations among Type A and Type D personalities, metabolic syndrome, and anxiety/depression. 



Methods 

A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a random community sample of 741 adults in Hong Kong recruited by cluster sampling. Participants meeting the screening criteria of metabolic syndrome were offered further physical examination for confirming the diagnosis. 



Results 

For the Chinese version AATABS-3 scale (revised-AATABS-3), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) produced an 11-item 3-factor solution. The three factors were: 1) impatience/time urgency; 2) hostility/anger; and 3) competitiveness. The revised-AATABS-3 scale showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach&#8216;s alpha = 0.74). For the Chinese version DS-14 scale (revised-DS-14), EFA provided a 10-item 2-factor solution. The two factors were: negative affectivity and social inhibition. The revised-DS-14 scale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach&#8216;s alpha = 0.90).



Gender differences appeared in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. In the total population and female participants, there were no significant associations between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome. However, male participants with Type A personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome. In the total participants, there were no significant associations between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome. However, female participants with Type D personality were positively associated with metabolic syndrome; whereas male participants with Type D personality were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome. Anxiety affected the association between Type A personality and metabolic syndrome in males only, whereas it affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. Depression affected the association between Type D personality and metabolic syndrome both in females and males. 



Conclusion and Discussion 

The revised-AATABS-3 and revised-DS-14 scales showed satisfactory psychometric properties. They might be more convenient and acceptable than the original scales for measuring Type A and Type D personalities in future research. Since EFA was a preliminary method for scale validation, further validation studies for these two scales are needed, for examples, on concurrent and discriminant validity. 

Gender differences occurred in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome. The key findings were: 



*&#61472;Type A personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in male participants. 

*&#61472;Type D personality was a risk factor of metabolic syndrome in female participants, but it exhibited a protective effect for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. 

*&#61472;Anxiety played a protective effect in the associations between Type A and Type D personalities and metabolic syndrome in male participants. 

*&#61472;Depression had a protective effect on Type D personality for developing metabolic syndrome in female participants, and it reduced the protective effect of Type D personality for preventing metabolic syndrome in male participants. 



The results of this study may give directions to future studies pursuing further investigations on metabolic syndrome, particularly in regard to personality traits, lifestyles, mental health issues, and coping strategies in cultural and social contexts, as well as gender differences related to the endocrine system.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)</relation.ispartof>
<rights>The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.</rights>
<rights>Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License</rights>
<source.uri>http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849496</source.uri>
<subject.lcsh>Personality.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Metabolic syndrome.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Anxiety.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Depression, Mental.</subject.lcsh>
<title>Associations among type A and type D personalities, metabolicsyndrome, and anxiety/depression</title>
<type>PG_Thesis</type>
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<description.thesisname>Doctor of Philosophy</description.thesisname>
<description.thesislevel>doctoral</description.thesislevel>
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<description.nature>published_or_final_version</description.nature>
<date.hkucongregation>2012</date.hkucongregation>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/174507/1/FullText.pdf</bitstream.url>
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