File Download
 
 
Supplementary

Postgraduate Thesis: The applications of computational fluid dynamics to the cardiovascularsystem and the respiratory system
  • Basic View
  • Metadata View
  • XML View
TitleThe applications of computational fluid dynamics to the cardiovascularsystem and the respiratory system
 
AuthorsFan, Yi
樊怡
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
AbstractThe diseases of cardiovascular system and the respiratory system have been the second and third killers causing deaths in Hong Kong. In this stressful civilized world, the prevalence and incidence of these diseases increased prominently which arouse our concern on the theories behind the pathological conditions. This report will focus on the biofluid mechanics in the large artery and in the upper airway. Thoracic aortic dissection, characterized by the tearing in the middle layer of vessel wall, is a catastrophic vascular disorder. The wall of the newly formed channel, the false lumen, is weakened and prone to aortic events. Endovascular repair is a minimally invasive technique for treating dissection patients. The biomechanical factors and the length of endograft were studied by computational fluid dynamics. Two geometrical factors showed a significant impact on the backflow in the false lumen. A larger false lumen and a larger distal tear size greatly affected the extent of thrombosis in the false lumen. It made the false lumen under a higher risk of vessel rupture. The computational prediction also demonstrated a more stable hemodynamic condition in the model with a longer endograft. These results provide important information for the clinicians to propose the surgical procedures and to improve the design of endografts. Airway obstruction is a common breathing disorder but it is always underdiagnosed. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and different dentofacial deformities are two pathological conditions in which the patients have the abnormal sizes of airways. Computational fluid dynamic was employed in both conditions with patient–specific models. In the part of OSA, pre– and post–operative models were studied. The dimensions and flow resistance of the upper airway showed a significant improvement after mandibular distraction. The percentage of stenosis and the flow resistance was reduced by 27.3% and 40.7% respectively. For the patients in three facial skeletal deformity groups, the cross–sectional area and the flow resistance were compared. The patients with Class II deformity had the smallest retroglossal and retroplatal dimensions as well as the greatest flow resistance. The results confirmed the effectiveness of mandibular distraction and also provide valuable implications for the clinicians on the treatment planning, particularly for the Class II subjects.
 
AdvisorsChow, KW
 
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
 
SubjectFluid dynamics - Mathematical models.
Cardiovascular system - Mechanical properties.
Respiratory system - Mechanical properties.
 
Dept/ProgramMechanical Engineering
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.advisorChow, KW
 
dc.contributor.authorFan, Yi
 
dc.contributor.author樊怡
 
dc.date.hkucongregation2012
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractThe diseases of cardiovascular system and the respiratory system have been the second and third killers causing deaths in Hong Kong. In this stressful civilized world, the prevalence and incidence of these diseases increased prominently which arouse our concern on the theories behind the pathological conditions. This report will focus on the biofluid mechanics in the large artery and in the upper airway. Thoracic aortic dissection, characterized by the tearing in the middle layer of vessel wall, is a catastrophic vascular disorder. The wall of the newly formed channel, the false lumen, is weakened and prone to aortic events. Endovascular repair is a minimally invasive technique for treating dissection patients. The biomechanical factors and the length of endograft were studied by computational fluid dynamics. Two geometrical factors showed a significant impact on the backflow in the false lumen. A larger false lumen and a larger distal tear size greatly affected the extent of thrombosis in the false lumen. It made the false lumen under a higher risk of vessel rupture. The computational prediction also demonstrated a more stable hemodynamic condition in the model with a longer endograft. These results provide important information for the clinicians to propose the surgical procedures and to improve the design of endografts. Airway obstruction is a common breathing disorder but it is always underdiagnosed. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and different dentofacial deformities are two pathological conditions in which the patients have the abnormal sizes of airways. Computational fluid dynamic was employed in both conditions with patient–specific models. In the part of OSA, pre– and post–operative models were studied. The dimensions and flow resistance of the upper airway showed a significant improvement after mandibular distraction. The percentage of stenosis and the flow resistance was reduced by 27.3% and 40.7% respectively. For the patients in three facial skeletal deformity groups, the cross–sectional area and the flow resistance were compared. The patients with Class II deformity had the smallest retroglossal and retroplatal dimensions as well as the greatest flow resistance. The results confirmed the effectiveness of mandibular distraction and also provide valuable implications for the clinicians on the treatment planning, particularly for the Class II subjects.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMechanical Engineering
 
dc.description.thesislevelmaster's
 
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy
 
dc.identifier.hkulb4775319
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)
 
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47753195
 
dc.subject.lcshFluid dynamics - Mathematical models.
 
dc.subject.lcshCardiovascular system - Mechanical properties.
 
dc.subject.lcshRespiratory system - Mechanical properties.
 
dc.titleThe applications of computational fluid dynamics to the cardiovascularsystem and the respiratory system
 
dc.typePG_Thesis
 
<?xml encoding="utf-8" version="1.0"?>
<item><contributor.advisor>Chow, KW</contributor.advisor>
<contributor.author>Fan, Yi</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>&#27146;&#24609;</contributor.author>
<date.issued>2011</date.issued>
<description.abstract>&#65279;The diseases of cardiovascular system and the respiratory system have been the second and third killers causing deaths in Hong Kong. In this stressful civilized world, the prevalence and incidence of these diseases increased prominently which arouse our concern on the theories behind the pathological conditions. This report will focus on the biofluid mechanics in the large artery and in the upper airway. 

Thoracic aortic dissection, characterized by the tearing in the middle layer of vessel wall, is a catastrophic vascular disorder. The wall of the newly formed channel, the false lumen, is weakened and prone to aortic events. Endovascular repair is a minimally invasive technique for treating dissection patients. The biomechanical factors and the length of endograft were studied by computational fluid dynamics. Two geometrical factors showed a significant impact on the backflow in the false lumen. A larger false lumen and a larger distal tear size greatly affected the extent of thrombosis in the false lumen. It made the false lumen under a higher risk of vessel rupture. The computational prediction also demonstrated a more stable hemodynamic condition in the model with a longer endograft. These results provide important information for the clinicians to propose the surgical procedures and to improve the design of endografts.

Airway obstruction is a common breathing disorder but it is always underdiagnosed. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and different dentofacial deformities are two pathological conditions in which the patients have the abnormal sizes of airways. Computational fluid dynamic was employed in both conditions with patient&#8211;specific models. In the part of OSA, pre&#8211; and post&#8211;operative models were studied. The dimensions and flow resistance of the upper airway showed a significant improvement after mandibular distraction. The percentage of stenosis and the flow resistance was reduced by 27.3% and 40.7% respectively. For the patients in three facial skeletal deformity groups, the cross&#8211;sectional area and the flow resistance were compared. The patients with Class II deformity had the smallest retroglossal and retroplatal dimensions as well as the greatest flow resistance. The results confirmed the effectiveness of mandibular distraction and also provide valuable implications for the clinicians on the treatment planning, particularly for the Class II subjects.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)</relation.ispartof>
<rights>The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.</rights>
<rights>Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License</rights>
<source.uri>http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47753195</source.uri>
<subject.lcsh>Fluid dynamics - Mathematical models.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Cardiovascular system - Mechanical properties.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Respiratory system - Mechanical properties.</subject.lcsh>
<title>The applications of computational fluid dynamics to the cardiovascularsystem and the respiratory system</title>
<type>PG_Thesis</type>
<identifier.hkul>b4775319</identifier.hkul>
<description.thesisname>Master of Philosophy</description.thesisname>
<description.thesislevel>master&apos;s</description.thesislevel>
<description.thesisdiscipline>Mechanical Engineering</description.thesisdiscipline>
<description.nature>published_or_final_version</description.nature>
<date.hkucongregation>2012</date.hkucongregation>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/174499/1/FullText.pdf</bitstream.url>
</item>