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postgraduate thesis: Mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from skeletal myoblasts at low pH

TitleMechanisms involved in the release of ATP from skeletal myoblasts at low pH
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Lu, L. [鹿琳]. (2012). Mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from skeletal myoblasts at low pH. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732377
AbstractLactic acid, which induces pH depression, leads to ATP efflux from muscle to extracellular space: it was reported that CFTR was involved in this process. However, the mechanism by which lactic acid activated CFTR and brought about the ATP release is still unknown. This study was performed to investigate (1) what channels may be involved or even conduct ATP release, and (2) how lactic acid activated CFTR. Expression of the possible channels that may conduct ATP release in L6 cells was investigated using RT-PCR: ClC-2, ClC-3, ClC-7, CACC, VDAC, connexin 40, connexin 43 and pannexin 3 were expressed in L6. Incubation of cultured L6 cells with lactic acid (10 mM) increased the extracellular ATP from 0.6 ± 0.06 to 1.1 ± 0.09 nM (P ? 0.05), indicating that lactic acid stimulated ATP efflux in vitro. The non-specific chloride channel inhibitor, DIDS, failed to abolish the lactic-acid-induced ATP release, suggesting that DIDS-sensitive chloride channels were not involved in the ATP efflux. Among the non-specific inhibitors of connexin channels, gadolinium inhibited acidosis-induced ATP efflux, but carbenoxolone failed to inhibit it, and so the role of connexins remains uncertain. The specific inhibitor of CFTR, CFTRinh-172, and the non-specific open-channel blocker of CFTR, glibenclamide, both abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, but another specific inhibitor of CFTR, GlyH-101, which blocks CFTR from the external side, failed to abolish the ATP release, suggesting that acidosis-induced ATP is dependent on CFTR-activation, but does not involve ATP moving through the CFTR chloride channel. We hypothesize that, at low pH, the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX) extruded H+ out of the cell and the resulting intracellular Na+ was transported out by Ca2+/Na+ exchanger (NCX); the localized increase in Ca2+ activated adenyl cyclase (AC), thus elevating intracellular cAMP; cAMP-activated-PKA then phosphorylated CFTR, which regulated an ATP release channel. KT-5720, an inhibitor of PKA, abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, and forskolin, an agent that elevates cAMP, stimulated it, suggesting that the cAMP/PKA pathway was involved. The specific inhibitor of NCX, SN-6 and KB-R7943, both abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, supporting a role for NCX in mediating this process. However, amiloride, the non-specific inhibitor of NHX failed to abolish ATP efflux. The whole cell Cl- currents were studied in L6 cells: lactic acid increased the whole cell currents from 2.33 ± 0.10 to 3.54 ± 0.34 nA (P ? 0.05), and this lactic-acid-induced increase in Cl- current could be inhibited by CFTRinh-172, suggesting that the CFTR Cl- channel was opened at low pH. Moreover, forskolin increased whole cell Cl- currents, which supported a role for the cAMP/PKA pathway in the lactic-acid-induced increase in CFTR current. These data confirm that CFTR is involved in the lactic-acid-induced ATP release from L6 cells. The roles of the NCX and cAMP/PKA pathway in activating CFTR at low pH are supported, but further studies are required to determine whether the NHX is involved in CFTR activation and whether connexins participate in ATP release.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectLactic acid - Physiological effects.
Adenosine triphosphate.
Cystic fibrosis.
Chloride channels.
Dept/ProgramPhysiology

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLu, Lin-
dc.contributor.author鹿琳-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationLu, L. [鹿琳]. (2012). Mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from skeletal myoblasts at low pH. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732377-
dc.description.abstractLactic acid, which induces pH depression, leads to ATP efflux from muscle to extracellular space: it was reported that CFTR was involved in this process. However, the mechanism by which lactic acid activated CFTR and brought about the ATP release is still unknown. This study was performed to investigate (1) what channels may be involved or even conduct ATP release, and (2) how lactic acid activated CFTR. Expression of the possible channels that may conduct ATP release in L6 cells was investigated using RT-PCR: ClC-2, ClC-3, ClC-7, CACC, VDAC, connexin 40, connexin 43 and pannexin 3 were expressed in L6. Incubation of cultured L6 cells with lactic acid (10 mM) increased the extracellular ATP from 0.6 ± 0.06 to 1.1 ± 0.09 nM (P ? 0.05), indicating that lactic acid stimulated ATP efflux in vitro. The non-specific chloride channel inhibitor, DIDS, failed to abolish the lactic-acid-induced ATP release, suggesting that DIDS-sensitive chloride channels were not involved in the ATP efflux. Among the non-specific inhibitors of connexin channels, gadolinium inhibited acidosis-induced ATP efflux, but carbenoxolone failed to inhibit it, and so the role of connexins remains uncertain. The specific inhibitor of CFTR, CFTRinh-172, and the non-specific open-channel blocker of CFTR, glibenclamide, both abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, but another specific inhibitor of CFTR, GlyH-101, which blocks CFTR from the external side, failed to abolish the ATP release, suggesting that acidosis-induced ATP is dependent on CFTR-activation, but does not involve ATP moving through the CFTR chloride channel. We hypothesize that, at low pH, the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX) extruded H+ out of the cell and the resulting intracellular Na+ was transported out by Ca2+/Na+ exchanger (NCX); the localized increase in Ca2+ activated adenyl cyclase (AC), thus elevating intracellular cAMP; cAMP-activated-PKA then phosphorylated CFTR, which regulated an ATP release channel. KT-5720, an inhibitor of PKA, abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, and forskolin, an agent that elevates cAMP, stimulated it, suggesting that the cAMP/PKA pathway was involved. The specific inhibitor of NCX, SN-6 and KB-R7943, both abolished the acidosis-induced ATP release, supporting a role for NCX in mediating this process. However, amiloride, the non-specific inhibitor of NHX failed to abolish ATP efflux. The whole cell Cl- currents were studied in L6 cells: lactic acid increased the whole cell currents from 2.33 ± 0.10 to 3.54 ± 0.34 nA (P ? 0.05), and this lactic-acid-induced increase in Cl- current could be inhibited by CFTRinh-172, suggesting that the CFTR Cl- channel was opened at low pH. Moreover, forskolin increased whole cell Cl- currents, which supported a role for the cAMP/PKA pathway in the lactic-acid-induced increase in CFTR current. These data confirm that CFTR is involved in the lactic-acid-induced ATP release from L6 cells. The roles of the NCX and cAMP/PKA pathway in activating CFTR at low pH are supported, but further studies are required to determine whether the NHX is involved in CFTR activation and whether connexins participate in ATP release.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47323772-
dc.subject.lcshLactic acid - Physiological effects.-
dc.subject.lcshAdenosine triphosphate.-
dc.subject.lcshCystic fibrosis.-
dc.subject.lcshChloride channels.-
dc.titleMechanisms involved in the release of ATP from skeletal myoblasts at low pH-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4732377-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePhysiology-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4732377-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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