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postgraduate thesis: Risk of ischemic stroke and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese population

TitleRisk of ischemic stroke and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese population
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Siu, DCWTse, HF
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Chong, B. H. [鍾文一]. (2011). Risk of ischemic stroke and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese population. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732345
AbstractStroke is a devastating, neurological dysfunction due to brain blood supply disturbance. It is responsible for increasingly high rate of mortality and disability worldwide. This thesis comprises two original studies involving 868 patients at risk of ischemic stroke and/or hemorrhagic stroke. The first study investigated aspirin’s effect among patients with intracranial hemorrhage. Unlike Caucasians which hemorrhagic strokes account for 10-15% of all strokes; in Chinese, intracranial hemorrhages strike up to 35%. After such, anti-platelet agent like aspirin is often avoided for fear of recurrent intracranial hemorrhages, despite compelling indications. However, clinical data is limited. In this single-centered observational study, we included 440 consecutive Chinese patients with a first spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage surviving the first month performed during 1996-2010. 56 patients (12.7%) of these 440 patients were prescribed aspirin after intracranial hemorrhage (312 patient-aspirin years). After a mean follow-up of 62.2 ± 1.8 months, 47 patients had recurrent intracranial hemorrhage(10.7%, 20.6 per 1,000 patient years). Patients prescribed aspirin did not have higher risk of recurrent intracranial hemorrhage compared with those without (22.7 per 1,000 patient-aspirin years vs. 22.4 per 1,000 patient years, p=0.70). Multivariate analysis identified age > 60 years and hypertension as independent predictors for recurrent intracranial hemorrhage. In a subgroup analysis: the incidence of combined vascular events including recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and acute coronary syndrome was statistically lower in patients prescribed aspirin than without (52.4 per 1,000 patient-aspirin years, vs. 112.8 per 1,000 patient-years, p=0.04). Implications of the results: despite having a substantial risk for recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, post-intracranial hemorrhage ones are at risk for thrombotic vascular events and management goal should thus focus on ameliorating overall cardiovascular risk instead of preventing recurrent intracranial hemorrhage. Hence, thrombo-prophylaxis should still be considered. The second study investigated the relation between premature atrial complexes and new-onset atrial fibrillation together with other cardiovascular events. Premature atrial complexes though taken as benign phenomenon, are common in patients with underlying conditions such as coronary heart disease, chronic rheumatic heart disease. While prompt management of atrial fibrillation may prevent ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation is often unfound until ischemic stroke occurs. In this study, 428 patients without atrial fibrillation but complained of palpitations, dizziness or syncope were recruited. 107 patients with >100 premature atrial complexes/day were defined to have frequent premature atrial complexes. After a mean follow-up of 6.1 ±1.3 years, 31 patients (29%) with frequent premature atrial complexes developed atrial fibrillation compared with 29 patients (9%) with premature atrial complexes?100/day (p<0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed: frequent premature atrial complexes, age>75 years and coronary artery disease were independent predictors. In secondary endpoint (ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, and death), patients with frequent premature atrial complexes were more at risk than those without (34.5% vs. 19.3%) (Hazard ratio: 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-3.50, p=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed: age> 75 years, coronary artery disease and frequent premature atrial complexes were independent predictors. These permit early identification of high risks patients of new atrial fibrillation and other events, thus promoting appropriate preventive treatment.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectCerebrovascular disease - Risk factors.
Cerebral ischemia - Risk factors.
Hemorrhagic diseases - Risk factors.
Dept/ProgramMedicine

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorSiu, DCW-
dc.contributor.advisorTse, HF-
dc.contributor.authorChong, Boon Hor.-
dc.contributor.author鍾文一.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationChong, B. H. [鍾文一]. (2011). Risk of ischemic stroke and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese population. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732345-
dc.description.abstractStroke is a devastating, neurological dysfunction due to brain blood supply disturbance. It is responsible for increasingly high rate of mortality and disability worldwide. This thesis comprises two original studies involving 868 patients at risk of ischemic stroke and/or hemorrhagic stroke. The first study investigated aspirin’s effect among patients with intracranial hemorrhage. Unlike Caucasians which hemorrhagic strokes account for 10-15% of all strokes; in Chinese, intracranial hemorrhages strike up to 35%. After such, anti-platelet agent like aspirin is often avoided for fear of recurrent intracranial hemorrhages, despite compelling indications. However, clinical data is limited. In this single-centered observational study, we included 440 consecutive Chinese patients with a first spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage surviving the first month performed during 1996-2010. 56 patients (12.7%) of these 440 patients were prescribed aspirin after intracranial hemorrhage (312 patient-aspirin years). After a mean follow-up of 62.2 ± 1.8 months, 47 patients had recurrent intracranial hemorrhage(10.7%, 20.6 per 1,000 patient years). Patients prescribed aspirin did not have higher risk of recurrent intracranial hemorrhage compared with those without (22.7 per 1,000 patient-aspirin years vs. 22.4 per 1,000 patient years, p=0.70). Multivariate analysis identified age > 60 years and hypertension as independent predictors for recurrent intracranial hemorrhage. In a subgroup analysis: the incidence of combined vascular events including recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and acute coronary syndrome was statistically lower in patients prescribed aspirin than without (52.4 per 1,000 patient-aspirin years, vs. 112.8 per 1,000 patient-years, p=0.04). Implications of the results: despite having a substantial risk for recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, post-intracranial hemorrhage ones are at risk for thrombotic vascular events and management goal should thus focus on ameliorating overall cardiovascular risk instead of preventing recurrent intracranial hemorrhage. Hence, thrombo-prophylaxis should still be considered. The second study investigated the relation between premature atrial complexes and new-onset atrial fibrillation together with other cardiovascular events. Premature atrial complexes though taken as benign phenomenon, are common in patients with underlying conditions such as coronary heart disease, chronic rheumatic heart disease. While prompt management of atrial fibrillation may prevent ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation is often unfound until ischemic stroke occurs. In this study, 428 patients without atrial fibrillation but complained of palpitations, dizziness or syncope were recruited. 107 patients with >100 premature atrial complexes/day were defined to have frequent premature atrial complexes. After a mean follow-up of 6.1 ±1.3 years, 31 patients (29%) with frequent premature atrial complexes developed atrial fibrillation compared with 29 patients (9%) with premature atrial complexes?100/day (p<0.01). Cox regression analysis revealed: frequent premature atrial complexes, age>75 years and coronary artery disease were independent predictors. In secondary endpoint (ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, and death), patients with frequent premature atrial complexes were more at risk than those without (34.5% vs. 19.3%) (Hazard ratio: 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-3.50, p=0.001). Cox regression analysis showed: age> 75 years, coronary artery disease and frequent premature atrial complexes were independent predictors. These permit early identification of high risks patients of new atrial fibrillation and other events, thus promoting appropriate preventive treatment.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47323450-
dc.subject.lcshCerebrovascular disease - Risk factors.-
dc.subject.lcshCerebral ischemia - Risk factors.-
dc.subject.lcshHemorrhagic diseases - Risk factors.-
dc.titleRisk of ischemic stroke and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese population-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4732345-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMedicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4732345-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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