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postgraduate thesis: The role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1-deficiency in diabetic and ischemic retinopathy

TitleThe role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1-deficiency in diabetic and ischemic retinopathy
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Chung, SK
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Liu, J. [刘谨]. (2011). The role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1-deficiency in diabetic and ischemic retinopathy. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4731015
AbstractPrevious in vitro studies showed that exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1 (Epac1), which is a cAMP mediator, plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by impairment of retinal blood vessel integrity leading to breakdown of blood retinal barrier, retinal hypoxia, and neuronal damage. Here, we hypothesize that Epac1 regulates endothelial permeability and protects retina from the retinal damage associated with diabetes. To test such hypothesis, we first demonstrated that human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) exposed to high glucose concentration at 25 mM or 35 mM showed the decreased Epac1 expression level. Our preliminary data also showed that Epac1-downstream activator, Rap1, a member of Ras GTPase, was also altered by different glucose levels. In addition, retina from type 2 diabetic, db/db, mice also showed the decreased Epac1 expression compared to that of non-diabetic, db/m, mice. To further determine the role of Epac1 in diabetic retinopathy, we made use of Epac1-deficient mice. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy share similar characteristics to that of ischemic retinopathy, such as neuronal cell death, glial reactivity, and glutamate toxicity. Therefore, we used our previous retinal ischemic model, i.e., transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Firstly, we determined the retinal morphology of Epac1-/- mice under normal condition at 3wks. At 3 wks old, the Epac1-/- retinae showed a significantly decreased thickness of outer plexiform layer (OPL) with a trend of increase in inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness. Interestingly, there were obviously more glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive M?ller cells and protein kinase C (PKC)-α positive rod bipolar cells in INL. In addition, there were more IgG-positive blood vessels in OPL. To further determine whether these phenotypes will lead to more severe retinal damage, Epac1-/- mice were exposed to 2 hours of MCAO followed by 22 hours of reperfusion, which we have previously shown to induce retinal ischemia. There was no obvious difference in retinal thickness and expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GS in the contralateral sides of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- retina after tMCAO suggesting that the Epac1-deficiency may be compensated by either protein kinase A (PKA) or Epac2. However, Epac2 level was not altered by Epac1-deficiency by Western blot analysis. The ipsilateral sides of the retina of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- after tMCAO also did not show obvious difference in swelling and cell death in inner retina, GFAP, glutamate, GS, nitrotyrosine (NT), and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), suggesting that Epac1-deficiency may have been compensated by other cAMP mediators, such as Epac2. However, Epac2 expression in the ipsilateral side of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- retinae was not significantly different, although the activities of Epac and PKA were not determined. Taken together, the Epac1-deficient mice would serve as a useful model to determine the role of Epac1 in retinal development, and to determine the detail mechanisms of pathogenesis of diabetic and ischemic retinopathy.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectCyclic adenylic acid.
Diabetic retinopathy - Molecular aspects.
Dept/ProgramAnatomy

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorChung, SK-
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Jin-
dc.contributor.author刘谨-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationLiu, J. [刘谨]. (2011). The role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1-deficiency in diabetic and ischemic retinopathy. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4731015-
dc.description.abstractPrevious in vitro studies showed that exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1 (Epac1), which is a cAMP mediator, plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by impairment of retinal blood vessel integrity leading to breakdown of blood retinal barrier, retinal hypoxia, and neuronal damage. Here, we hypothesize that Epac1 regulates endothelial permeability and protects retina from the retinal damage associated with diabetes. To test such hypothesis, we first demonstrated that human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) exposed to high glucose concentration at 25 mM or 35 mM showed the decreased Epac1 expression level. Our preliminary data also showed that Epac1-downstream activator, Rap1, a member of Ras GTPase, was also altered by different glucose levels. In addition, retina from type 2 diabetic, db/db, mice also showed the decreased Epac1 expression compared to that of non-diabetic, db/m, mice. To further determine the role of Epac1 in diabetic retinopathy, we made use of Epac1-deficient mice. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy share similar characteristics to that of ischemic retinopathy, such as neuronal cell death, glial reactivity, and glutamate toxicity. Therefore, we used our previous retinal ischemic model, i.e., transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Firstly, we determined the retinal morphology of Epac1-/- mice under normal condition at 3wks. At 3 wks old, the Epac1-/- retinae showed a significantly decreased thickness of outer plexiform layer (OPL) with a trend of increase in inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness. Interestingly, there were obviously more glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive M?ller cells and protein kinase C (PKC)-α positive rod bipolar cells in INL. In addition, there were more IgG-positive blood vessels in OPL. To further determine whether these phenotypes will lead to more severe retinal damage, Epac1-/- mice were exposed to 2 hours of MCAO followed by 22 hours of reperfusion, which we have previously shown to induce retinal ischemia. There was no obvious difference in retinal thickness and expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GS in the contralateral sides of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- retina after tMCAO suggesting that the Epac1-deficiency may be compensated by either protein kinase A (PKA) or Epac2. However, Epac2 level was not altered by Epac1-deficiency by Western blot analysis. The ipsilateral sides of the retina of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- after tMCAO also did not show obvious difference in swelling and cell death in inner retina, GFAP, glutamate, GS, nitrotyrosine (NT), and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), suggesting that Epac1-deficiency may have been compensated by other cAMP mediators, such as Epac2. However, Epac2 expression in the ipsilateral side of Epac1+/+ and Epac1-/- retinae was not significantly different, although the activities of Epac and PKA were not determined. Taken together, the Epac1-deficient mice would serve as a useful model to determine the role of Epac1 in retinal development, and to determine the detail mechanisms of pathogenesis of diabetic and ischemic retinopathy.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47310157-
dc.subject.lcshCyclic adenylic acid.-
dc.subject.lcshDiabetic retinopathy - Molecular aspects.-
dc.titleThe role of exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1-deficiency in diabetic and ischemic retinopathy-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4731015-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineAnatomy-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4731015-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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