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postgraduate thesis: Spatial autocorrelation and liquidity in Hong Kong's real estate market

TitleSpatial autocorrelation and liquidity in Hong Kong's real estate market
Authors
Issue Date2010
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Li, C. [李振華]. (2010). Spatial autocorrelation and liquidity in Hong Kong's real estate market. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4727800
AbstractSpatial autocorrelation is commonly found in the Hedonic Pricing model for real estate prices, but little attention has been paid to identify the causes behind. The primary objective of this research is to examine the causes of spatial autocorrelation in housing prices. Observed autocorrelation is often attributable to the omission of important location characteristics in the modelling process. Since it is practically impossible to exhaustively include all location characteristics, some variables may eventually be omitted, leaving spatially autocorrelated residuals in the Hedonic Pricing model. This thesis proposes a new source of spatial autocorrelation: real estate market liquidity. We hypothesize that liquidity affects the geographical boundary within which buyers and sellers search for price information. When the “immediate vicinity” of a property has few transactions, buyers and sellers may have to search for price information from more distant locations. Therefore, low liquidity in the vicinity of a property should strengthen the spatial autocorrelation of real estate prices. A Spatial - Liquidity Hedonic Pricing (SLHP) model is proposed to test the above hypothesis. The SLHP model generalizes traditional spatial autoregressive models by making the spatial process liquidity dependent. When applied to the apartment market in Hong Kong, the model is operationalized by defining “immediate vicinity” as the building where the subject unit locates. Furthermore, the SLHP model recognizes that past transactions may affect current transactions, but not vice versa, so the spatial weight matrix is simply lower triangular. Under this condition, we have shown that the Maximum Likelihood Estimation is equivalent to the Ordinary Least Squares Estimation. This greatly simplifies the estimation procedures and reduces the empirical analysis to a feasible scale. Based on 15 500 transactions of residential units in Taikooshing, Hong Kong from 1992 to 2006, we conclude that while positive spatial autocorrelation is present in housing prices, its magnitude decreases when liquidity, as measured by the past transaction volume in the immediate vicinity of a subject unit, is high. In addition, we found that current prices are spatially correlated with transactions occurred up to the last three months only, reflecting the relatively high information efficiency of Hong Kong’s residential market. All these results are generally robust across a variety of distance, liquidity, and time weight specifications. This study establishes liquidity as a determinant of spatial autocorrelation in real estate prices. This is a new finding contributing to the economic literature on liquidity effects and technical literature on spatial estimation. Our results not only reveal the spatially dependent price formation process in the real estate market, but also have practical applications on the hedonic modelling of real estate prices for mass valuation and index construction.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectReal property - Prices - Statistical methods. - China - Hong Kong
Dept/ProgramReal Estate and Construction

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLi, Chun-wah-
dc.contributor.author李振華-
dc.date.issued2010-
dc.identifier.citationLi, C. [李振華]. (2010). Spatial autocorrelation and liquidity in Hong Kong's real estate market. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4727800-
dc.description.abstractSpatial autocorrelation is commonly found in the Hedonic Pricing model for real estate prices, but little attention has been paid to identify the causes behind. The primary objective of this research is to examine the causes of spatial autocorrelation in housing prices. Observed autocorrelation is often attributable to the omission of important location characteristics in the modelling process. Since it is practically impossible to exhaustively include all location characteristics, some variables may eventually be omitted, leaving spatially autocorrelated residuals in the Hedonic Pricing model. This thesis proposes a new source of spatial autocorrelation: real estate market liquidity. We hypothesize that liquidity affects the geographical boundary within which buyers and sellers search for price information. When the “immediate vicinity” of a property has few transactions, buyers and sellers may have to search for price information from more distant locations. Therefore, low liquidity in the vicinity of a property should strengthen the spatial autocorrelation of real estate prices. A Spatial - Liquidity Hedonic Pricing (SLHP) model is proposed to test the above hypothesis. The SLHP model generalizes traditional spatial autoregressive models by making the spatial process liquidity dependent. When applied to the apartment market in Hong Kong, the model is operationalized by defining “immediate vicinity” as the building where the subject unit locates. Furthermore, the SLHP model recognizes that past transactions may affect current transactions, but not vice versa, so the spatial weight matrix is simply lower triangular. Under this condition, we have shown that the Maximum Likelihood Estimation is equivalent to the Ordinary Least Squares Estimation. This greatly simplifies the estimation procedures and reduces the empirical analysis to a feasible scale. Based on 15 500 transactions of residential units in Taikooshing, Hong Kong from 1992 to 2006, we conclude that while positive spatial autocorrelation is present in housing prices, its magnitude decreases when liquidity, as measured by the past transaction volume in the immediate vicinity of a subject unit, is high. In addition, we found that current prices are spatially correlated with transactions occurred up to the last three months only, reflecting the relatively high information efficiency of Hong Kong’s residential market. All these results are generally robust across a variety of distance, liquidity, and time weight specifications. This study establishes liquidity as a determinant of spatial autocorrelation in real estate prices. This is a new finding contributing to the economic literature on liquidity effects and technical literature on spatial estimation. Our results not only reveal the spatially dependent price formation process in the real estate market, but also have practical applications on the hedonic modelling of real estate prices for mass valuation and index construction.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47278006-
dc.subject.lcshReal property - Prices - Statistical methods. - China - Hong Kong-
dc.titleSpatial autocorrelation and liquidity in Hong Kong's real estate market-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4727800-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineReal Estate and Construction-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4727800-
dc.date.hkucongregation2010-

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