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postgraduate thesis: Effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in patients with type II diabetes

TitleEffects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in patients with type II diabetes
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Yiu, Y. [饒元豐]. (2012). Effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in patients with type II diabetes. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4833497
AbstractDespite the medical advances in recent decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of mortality in most developing countries. Ongoing efforts have been focused on evaluating new strategies targeting on novel risk factors. Vitamin D deficiency, a previously neglected condition, has recently attracted much attention from the scientific community with its potential extra-skeletal effects. There is accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies that a suboptimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, and various traditional CVD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome. Several theories have been proposed to explain these relationships but none receive universal recognition. There is recent laboratory evidence that vitamin D may exert specific effects in patients with DM. However, relationships between vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in this group of patients are unclear. In this dissertation, I sought to explore the effects of vitamin D deficiency on vascular function in patients with type II DM in a cross-sectional study. In the later part, the results of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of daily vitamin D supplementation in type II DM patients are presented and discussed. The cross-sectional study (Chapter 3) investigated the association of vitamin D status with endothelial function as measured by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) numbers in 280 patients with type II DM. The results showed that suboptimal vitamin D status was more common among patients with DM. Furthermore, patients with vitamin D deficiency had significantly lower brachial FMD (mean difference = -1.43%, 95% CI: -2.31 to -0.55, P = 0.001) and CD133/KDR+ EPC counts (mean difference = -0.12%, 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.02, P = 0.022) than those with sufficient vitamin D after adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, including HbA1c levels. Based on these positive results, the objectives of the randomized controlled trial (Chapter 4) were to study and confirm the effects of daily oral vitamin D supplementation on the vascular function in this group of patients. Over a 12-week period, 100 DM patients with suboptimal vitamin D status were randomized to receive 5,000 IU/day vitamin D or placebo. There were no reported adverse events including hypercalcemia, although a slight increase in serum ionized calcium (treatment effect 0.037 mmol/L, P = 0.018) was recorded in the vitamin D group. Despite a significant improvement in serum 25(OH)D in the treatment group, supplementation of vitamin D did not result in any significant improvement in vascular function as determined by FMD, circulating EPC count or arterial stiffness (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, the serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, oxidative stress markers, low- and high-density lipoprotein and glycated haemoglobin were also similar between two groups (all P > 0.05). The results of this study did not support a therapeutic role of supplementation with vitamin D for cardiovascular benefits. In conclusion, the results of these studies demonstrated that deficiency of vitamin D was associated with worse vascular function in patients with type II DM. However, vitamin D supplementation did not result in any significant benefits on vascular function or improvement in traditional CVD risk factors in DM patients. Further large clinical trials on vitamin D supplementation in patients with DM using clinical outcomes rather than surrogate CVD markers are necessary to confirm its benefits.
DegreeMaster of Research in Medicine
SubjectVitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D.
Blood-vessels.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Dept/ProgramMedicine

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorYiu, Yuen-fung.-
dc.contributor.author饒元豐.-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationYiu, Y. [饒元豐]. (2012). Effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in patients with type II diabetes. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4833497-
dc.description.abstractDespite the medical advances in recent decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of mortality in most developing countries. Ongoing efforts have been focused on evaluating new strategies targeting on novel risk factors. Vitamin D deficiency, a previously neglected condition, has recently attracted much attention from the scientific community with its potential extra-skeletal effects. There is accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies that a suboptimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, and various traditional CVD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome. Several theories have been proposed to explain these relationships but none receive universal recognition. There is recent laboratory evidence that vitamin D may exert specific effects in patients with DM. However, relationships between vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in this group of patients are unclear. In this dissertation, I sought to explore the effects of vitamin D deficiency on vascular function in patients with type II DM in a cross-sectional study. In the later part, the results of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of daily vitamin D supplementation in type II DM patients are presented and discussed. The cross-sectional study (Chapter 3) investigated the association of vitamin D status with endothelial function as measured by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) numbers in 280 patients with type II DM. The results showed that suboptimal vitamin D status was more common among patients with DM. Furthermore, patients with vitamin D deficiency had significantly lower brachial FMD (mean difference = -1.43%, 95% CI: -2.31 to -0.55, P = 0.001) and CD133/KDR+ EPC counts (mean difference = -0.12%, 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.02, P = 0.022) than those with sufficient vitamin D after adjustment for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, including HbA1c levels. Based on these positive results, the objectives of the randomized controlled trial (Chapter 4) were to study and confirm the effects of daily oral vitamin D supplementation on the vascular function in this group of patients. Over a 12-week period, 100 DM patients with suboptimal vitamin D status were randomized to receive 5,000 IU/day vitamin D or placebo. There were no reported adverse events including hypercalcemia, although a slight increase in serum ionized calcium (treatment effect 0.037 mmol/L, P = 0.018) was recorded in the vitamin D group. Despite a significant improvement in serum 25(OH)D in the treatment group, supplementation of vitamin D did not result in any significant improvement in vascular function as determined by FMD, circulating EPC count or arterial stiffness (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, the serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, oxidative stress markers, low- and high-density lipoprotein and glycated haemoglobin were also similar between two groups (all P > 0.05). The results of this study did not support a therapeutic role of supplementation with vitamin D for cardiovascular benefits. In conclusion, the results of these studies demonstrated that deficiency of vitamin D was associated with worse vascular function in patients with type II DM. However, vitamin D supplementation did not result in any significant benefits on vascular function or improvement in traditional CVD risk factors in DM patients. Further large clinical trials on vitamin D supplementation in patients with DM using clinical outcomes rather than surrogate CVD markers are necessary to confirm its benefits.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B48334972-
dc.subject.lcshVitamin D deficiency.-
dc.subject.lcshVitamin D.-
dc.subject.lcshBlood-vessels.-
dc.subject.lcshNon-insulin-dependent diabetes.-
dc.titleEffects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on vascular function in patients with type II diabetes-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4833497-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Research in Medicine-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMedicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4833497-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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