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Article: Neck segment loading in a dummy model: Effect of compression and lateral bending

TitleNeck segment loading in a dummy model: Effect of compression and lateral bending
Authors
KeywordsCervical Spine
Compressive Loading
Lateral Bending
Issue Date1994
PublisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.cjsportmed.com/
Citation
Clinical Journal Of Sport Medicine, 1994, v. 4 n. 2, p. 113-119 How to Cite?
AbstractPrevious research has shown that it is difficult effectively to reduce cervical compression under conditions of axial loading. In this study, the effect on the magnitude of cervical compression of diverting the line of action of the axial force, through lateral bending of the head at impact, was examined. Collision simulations were conducted with a Hybrid III anthropometric test dummy (ATD) propelled head first to strike a rigid barrier. The barrier had been placed to produce angles of incidence of 70° and 50° to the ATD's line of flight. Compressive and shear forces and moments of force were obtained from a three-axis force-and-moment transducer located at the atlanto-occipital junction of the ATD. A postprocessing model was developed to predict the loading on each segment of the ATD neck. Displacement data were obtained from an infrared imaging system using two cameras placed 60° apart, and infrared light-emitting diodes were fixed to the metal rings of the ATD neck. The collision simulations were also filmed at 500 frames per second to provide a top-coronal-plane view of the ATD under impact. Impact analysis showed large compressive forces (>4,000 N) and large shear forces (600-1,200 N) on the ATD segments for the 70° impacts. For the 50° impacts, however, the compression force (2,200 N) was markedly reduced as were the shear forces (300-450 N). Film observation confirmed that for the 70° impacts, the head was constrained on the impact surface, trapping the neck between the fixed head and moving torso. For the 50° condition, the head was free to move in a lateral direction, the neck was not trapped, and the compression force was substantially lowered. These results suggest that neck compression can be reduced in the ATD provided there is enough lateral bending. Whether shear forces and the moments of force produced by the lateral bending can be supported in real life by the cervical column (e.g., ligaments, disks, and muscles) requires further investigation.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/170000
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.308
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.933

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorBishop, PJen_US
dc.contributor.authorLu, Wen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-10-30T06:04:38Z-
dc.date.available2012-10-30T06:04:38Z-
dc.date.issued1994en_US
dc.identifier.citationClinical Journal Of Sport Medicine, 1994, v. 4 n. 2, p. 113-119en_US
dc.identifier.issn1050-642Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/170000-
dc.description.abstractPrevious research has shown that it is difficult effectively to reduce cervical compression under conditions of axial loading. In this study, the effect on the magnitude of cervical compression of diverting the line of action of the axial force, through lateral bending of the head at impact, was examined. Collision simulations were conducted with a Hybrid III anthropometric test dummy (ATD) propelled head first to strike a rigid barrier. The barrier had been placed to produce angles of incidence of 70° and 50° to the ATD's line of flight. Compressive and shear forces and moments of force were obtained from a three-axis force-and-moment transducer located at the atlanto-occipital junction of the ATD. A postprocessing model was developed to predict the loading on each segment of the ATD neck. Displacement data were obtained from an infrared imaging system using two cameras placed 60° apart, and infrared light-emitting diodes were fixed to the metal rings of the ATD neck. The collision simulations were also filmed at 500 frames per second to provide a top-coronal-plane view of the ATD under impact. Impact analysis showed large compressive forces (>4,000 N) and large shear forces (600-1,200 N) on the ATD segments for the 70° impacts. For the 50° impacts, however, the compression force (2,200 N) was markedly reduced as were the shear forces (300-450 N). Film observation confirmed that for the 70° impacts, the head was constrained on the impact surface, trapping the neck between the fixed head and moving torso. For the 50° condition, the head was free to move in a lateral direction, the neck was not trapped, and the compression force was substantially lowered. These results suggest that neck compression can be reduced in the ATD provided there is enough lateral bending. Whether shear forces and the moments of force produced by the lateral bending can be supported in real life by the cervical column (e.g., ligaments, disks, and muscles) requires further investigation.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherLippincott Williams & Wilkins. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.cjsportmed.com/en_US
dc.relation.ispartofClinical Journal of Sport Medicineen_US
dc.rightsClinical Journal of Sport Medicine. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.-
dc.subjectCervical Spineen_US
dc.subjectCompressive Loadingen_US
dc.subjectLateral Bendingen_US
dc.titleNeck segment loading in a dummy model: Effect of compression and lateral bendingen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailLu, W:wwlu@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityLu, W=rp00411en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0028314465en_US
dc.identifier.hkuros2840-
dc.identifier.volume4en_US
dc.identifier.issue2en_US
dc.identifier.spage113en_US
dc.identifier.epage119en_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBishop, PJ=7201937469en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLu, W=7404215221en_US

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