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Article: Avian influenza (H5N1) virus of clade 2.3.2 in domestic poultry in India
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TitleAvian influenza (H5N1) virus of clade 2.3.2 in domestic poultry in India
 
AuthorsNagarajan, S3
Tosh, C3
Smith, DK1
Peiris, JSM2
Murugkar, HV3
Sridevi, R3
Kumar, M3
Katare, M3
Jain, R3
Syed, Z3
Behera, P3
Cheung, CL2
Khandia, R3
Tripathi, S3
Guan, Y2
Dubey, SC3
 
Issue Date2012
 
PublisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.action
 
CitationPLoS One, 2012, v. 7 n. 2, article no. e31844 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031844
 
AbstractSouth Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80-2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.
 
ISSN1932-6203
2012 Impact Factor: 3.73
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.512
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031844
 
PubMed Central IDPMC3282738
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorNagarajan, S
 
dc.contributor.authorTosh, C
 
dc.contributor.authorSmith, DK
 
dc.contributor.authorPeiris, JSM
 
dc.contributor.authorMurugkar, HV
 
dc.contributor.authorSridevi, R
 
dc.contributor.authorKumar, M
 
dc.contributor.authorKatare, M
 
dc.contributor.authorJain, R
 
dc.contributor.authorSyed, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorBehera, P
 
dc.contributor.authorCheung, CL
 
dc.contributor.authorKhandia, R
 
dc.contributor.authorTripathi, S
 
dc.contributor.authorGuan, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorDubey, SC
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-09-20T08:48:09Z
 
dc.date.available2012-09-20T08:48:09Z
 
dc.date.issued2012
 
dc.description.abstractSouth Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80-2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.identifier.citationPLoS One, 2012, v. 7 n. 2, article no. e31844 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031844
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031844
 
dc.identifier.hkuros211104
 
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
2012 Impact Factor: 3.73
2012 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.512
 
dc.identifier.issue2, article no. e31844
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3282738
 
dc.identifier.pmid22363750
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84857438531
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/166787
 
dc.identifier.volume7
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.action
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS One
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.subject.meshAntigens, Viral - genetics - immunology
 
dc.subject.meshHemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus - genetics
 
dc.subject.meshInfluenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype - classification - genetics - immunology
 
dc.subject.meshInfluenza in Birds - immunology - virology
 
dc.subject.meshPoultry - virology
 
dc.titleAvian influenza (H5N1) virus of clade 2.3.2 in domestic poultry in India
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<description.abstract>South Asia has experienced regular outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza virus since its first detection in India and Pakistan in February, 2006. Till 2009, the outbreaks in this region were due to clade 2.2 H5N1 virus. In 2010, Nepal reported the first outbreak of clade 2.3.2 virus in South Asia. In February 2011, two outbreaks of H5N1 virus were reported in the State of Tripura in India. The antigenic and genetic analyses of seven H5N1 viruses isolated during these outbreaks were carried out. Antigenic analysis confirmed 64 to 256-fold reduction in cross reactivity compared with clade 2.2 viruses. The intravenous pathogenicity index of the isolates ranged from 2.80-2.95 indicating high pathogenicity to chickens. Sequencing of all the eight gene-segments of seven H5N1 viruses isolated in these outbreaks was carried out. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis revealed high pathogenicity to chickens and susceptibility to the antivirals, amantadine and oseltamivir. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses belong to clade 2.3.2.1 and were distinct to the clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated in Nepal. Identification of new clade 2.3.2 H5N1 viruses in South Asia is reminiscent of the introduction of clade 2.2 viruses in this region in 2006/7. It is now important to monitor whether the clade 2.3.2.1 is replacing clade 2.2 in this region or co-circulating with it. Continued co-circulation of various subclades of the H5N1 virus which are more adapted to land based poultry in a highly populated region such as South Asia increases the risk of evolution of pandemic H5N1 strains.</description.abstract>
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
  2. The University of Hong Kong
  3. Indian Veterinary Research Institute