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Article: Effects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms: Elderly Chinese living alone in Shanghai, China
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TitleEffects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms: Elderly Chinese living alone in Shanghai, China
 
AuthorsTong, HM2
Lai, DWL2 1
Zeng, Q3
Xu, WY3
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherSpringer New York LLC. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0169-3816
 
CitationJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 2011, v. 26 n. 4, p. 349-364 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10823-011-9150-1
 
AbstractResearch has identified social exclusion as one of the social determinants of health. There are risks of social exclusion in later life in recent years. However, despite the fact that China has the largest aging population in the world and reports a rapid growth in the proportion of older people living alone, research on the role of social exclusion on depression is limited. This study examined the effects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms in older Chinese who are living alone in China, based on the data from one Shanghai neighbourhood. The data used were obtained between August and October 2008 through face-to-face interviews, using a structured survey questionnaire, from a simple random sample of 228 Chinese 60 and older living alone in a Shanghai community. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 15-item Chinese version Geriatric Depression Scale. Social exclusion was represented by income adequacy, social relations, civic participation, and housing condition. Over 30% of participants reported symptoms of a mild or above mild level of depression. When controlled for the demographics and health variables in hierarchical multiple regression, social exclusion variables, represented by a lower level income adequacy, a less favourable housing condition, and feeling more lonely correlated significantly with more depressive symptoms. Contrary to previous studies on depression in the older adults in China, this study has obtained findings indicating that social exclusion variables are more important than other socio-demographic factors in the context of contemporary China. While two significant social exclusion variables (i.e. income and housing) are related to structural changes in the economic context in China, the intra-personal role of feeling lonely that ties strongly living alone and role of older adults in an increasingly competitive market economy should not be underestimated. To address depression and mental health of older Chinese who live alone, social policies and programs to reduce various forms of social exclusion should be developed. In additional to providing assistance in financial support and housing improvement, services to strengthen the social networks and social relations of these older people are essential.
 
ISSN0169-3816
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10823-011-9150-1
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorTong, HM
 
dc.contributor.authorLai, DWL
 
dc.contributor.authorZeng, Q
 
dc.contributor.authorXu, WY
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-09-20T08:46:44Z
 
dc.date.available2012-09-20T08:46:44Z
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractResearch has identified social exclusion as one of the social determinants of health. There are risks of social exclusion in later life in recent years. However, despite the fact that China has the largest aging population in the world and reports a rapid growth in the proportion of older people living alone, research on the role of social exclusion on depression is limited. This study examined the effects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms in older Chinese who are living alone in China, based on the data from one Shanghai neighbourhood. The data used were obtained between August and October 2008 through face-to-face interviews, using a structured survey questionnaire, from a simple random sample of 228 Chinese 60 and older living alone in a Shanghai community. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 15-item Chinese version Geriatric Depression Scale. Social exclusion was represented by income adequacy, social relations, civic participation, and housing condition. Over 30% of participants reported symptoms of a mild or above mild level of depression. When controlled for the demographics and health variables in hierarchical multiple regression, social exclusion variables, represented by a lower level income adequacy, a less favourable housing condition, and feeling more lonely correlated significantly with more depressive symptoms. Contrary to previous studies on depression in the older adults in China, this study has obtained findings indicating that social exclusion variables are more important than other socio-demographic factors in the context of contemporary China. While two significant social exclusion variables (i.e. income and housing) are related to structural changes in the economic context in China, the intra-personal role of feeling lonely that ties strongly living alone and role of older adults in an increasingly competitive market economy should not be underestimated. To address depression and mental health of older Chinese who live alone, social policies and programs to reduce various forms of social exclusion should be developed. In additional to providing assistance in financial support and housing improvement, services to strengthen the social networks and social relations of these older people are essential.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 2011, v. 26 n. 4, p. 349-364 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10823-011-9150-1
 
dc.identifier.citeulike9662534
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10823-011-9150-1
 
dc.identifier.epage364
 
dc.identifier.hkuros209718
 
dc.identifier.issn0169-3816
 
dc.identifier.issue4
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmid21814741
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-81255136139
 
dc.identifier.spage349
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/166765
 
dc.identifier.volume26
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherSpringer New York LLC. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0169-3816
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
 
dc.rightsThe original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
 
dc.subject.meshActivities of Daily Living - psychology
 
dc.subject.meshAttitude to Health
 
dc.subject.meshDepression - epidemiology - etiology
 
dc.subject.meshSingle Person - psychology
 
dc.subject.meshSocial Isolation
 
dc.titleEffects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms: Elderly Chinese living alone in Shanghai, China
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<contributor.author>Xu, WY</contributor.author>
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<description.abstract>Research has identified social exclusion as one of the social determinants of health. There are risks of social exclusion in later life in recent years. However, despite the fact that China has the largest aging population in the world and reports a rapid growth in the proportion of older people living alone, research on the role of social exclusion on depression is limited. This study examined the effects of social exclusion on depressive symptoms in older Chinese who are living alone in China, based on the data from one Shanghai neighbourhood. The data used were obtained between August and October 2008 through face-to-face interviews, using a structured survey questionnaire, from a simple random sample of 228 Chinese 60 and older living alone in a Shanghai community. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 15-item Chinese version Geriatric Depression Scale. Social exclusion was represented by income adequacy, social relations, civic participation, and housing condition. Over 30% of participants reported symptoms of a mild or above mild level of depression. When controlled for the demographics and health variables in hierarchical multiple regression, social exclusion variables, represented by a lower level income adequacy, a less favourable housing condition, and feeling more lonely correlated significantly with more depressive symptoms. Contrary to previous studies on depression in the older adults in China, this study has obtained findings indicating that social exclusion variables are more important than other socio-demographic factors in the context of contemporary China. While two significant social exclusion variables (i.e. income and housing) are related to structural changes in the economic context in China, the intra-personal role of feeling lonely that ties strongly living alone and role of older adults in an increasingly competitive market economy should not be underestimated. To address depression and mental health of older Chinese who live alone, social policies and programs to reduce various forms of social exclusion should be developed. In additional to providing assistance in financial support and housing improvement, services to strengthen the social networks and social relations of these older people are essential.</description.abstract>
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong
  2. University of Calgary
  3. Fudan University